Yes ... If everything was as simple as shown in the picture ... I inserted the plug into the Universal4lock module - and you're done. Moreover, maybe somewhere in Europe or America in some super-advanced “smart” apartments this has already been realized, but harsh reality still forces us to make the connection of the circuit breaker in the old way, using screwdrivers, pliers, etc. It’s about how to do it right, and this article will be discussed.
Types of connections
A switch is a means by which you can close and open an electrical circuit so that a device included in this circuit (for example, a light bulb) starts or stops its operation.
The simplest switch is a single-key switch with two contacts. With it, you can control the on and off of one light bulb. The simplest connection is a normal connection with the closure of two contacts in a simple circuit.
But for convenience, especially in large buildings with several floors, as well as in buildings whose layout includes long corridors, walk-through switches are mounted. With this switch, you can light in one corner of the room, and extinguish in the opposite. Why is this needed:
- You entered the bedroom, turned on the light at the entrance, lay down on the bed, and started, for example, reading a book. They started to fall asleep. It is clear that while you get up and reach the switch located at the entrance, you wake up. For this, you need a second switch located directly at the head of the bed. He slammed it and the light turned off. And do not get up.
- You enter a rather long and dark corridor, turn on the light, pass it all the way to the other end. You no longer need the light in it, but in order to turn it off, you have to go back again, and turn it off, make your way down the corridor now in complete darkness almost to the touch. To avoid this absurdity, at the other end of the corridor a second, walk-through, switch is installed, with which you can turn off the light without returning.
- You have a luxury house on three floors. We went on the stairs, turned on the light. Have risen. Connecting the walk-through switch on the top floor eliminates the need for the light to be on the stairs all the time until the next time you go down it and turn off the only switch.
Tools to cook
The list of tools and consumables required for wiring and connecting switches is as follows:
- a switch (or a pair - in the case of walk-throughs) with plastic sockets;
- cable with the number of cores in accordance with the types of switches and the presence of central grounding;
- shtroborez (grinder with a disk on ceramics);
- marker or simple pencil;
- a puncher with a nozzle for drilling a nest for a socket and a spatula-shaped bit for hollowing out the strobes;
- two screwdrivers - Phillips and flat;
- spatula, alabaster, gypsum;
Work on connecting the circuit breaker begins with the development of an action plan. It looks like this:
- circuit design;
- marking of future strobes for wiring and sockets for switches;
- termination of wires, installation of switches, distribution boxes (if required by the circuit);
- connection of the circuit breaker (s).
Wiring, cable termination
In accordance with the drawn diagram and the marking of the connection of the switch (switches), marked with a marker on the walls, strobes are made to seal the wires from the distribution box to the switches in them. The gates are made 15-20 cm above the ceiling, in the event that there is already wiring, then 15-20 cm below the existing line, but strictly horizontally. Sockets for switches are being made. The descents to the switches are strictly vertical.
Now everything is ready to proceed with the installation and connection of the key switches. After the switchgear sits on the gypsum mixture, the socket boxes under the switches, wiring is launched through the gates, which can be immediately repaired with a spatula and alabaster mixture. After the wiring is completed, we clean with a knife the ends of the wires of the wiring going to the circuit breakers by 6-7 cm, and on the junction box for twisting - by 1-1.5 cm.
Simple single-key connection
Connecting a single-key switch is the easiest, designed to control one connection from one place. It occurs according to the following schemes. Two options are given here: in the first, there is no central ground wire, in the second it is provided.
Without grounding, throw a two-wire cable to the switch from the box: red - phase, brown - phase return from the switch from the box to the two-wire chandelier, where brown is the phase from the switch and blue is zero.
In the case of grounding, a green grounding wire is added, which rushes to the metal case of the chandelier, and a three-wire wire is already going from the box to the chandelier. For lack of a metal case, grounding is optional.
Connect a simple two-key
Connecting a two-key switch will make it possible to control two groups of connections from one place at once, that is, if there are several bulbs in the chandelier. Using this switch, you can adjust the lighting mode by turning off or on an additional light bulb or a couple of light bulbs. In this case, the connection diagrams (depending on the availability of grounding) are as follows.
Here you can see that a single phase (red) is supplied to the switches, and from them two separate (one from each key - gray and brown) return flows are already returned to the box. In this case, a three-wire wire is used. From the box to the chandelier there should already be a four-wire wire containing two pairs, which, together with zero, are fed to the chandelier. You can use two two-wire wires. One pair is brown, carrying phase from the switch key, and blue zero, the second is gray, phase from the other switch key, and blue zero. Each pair is fed to its own group (lamp or pair of lamps).
If the chandelier body is metal, it should be grounded, which means that in this case, to connect a double switch in the box / chandelier section, you will have to use 6 cores (2 three-wire wires), as shown in the figure.
Connecting a single-pass walk-through
Any passage switch is equipped with not one, but two opposite contacts, as a result of which, opening the contacts when turned off, it transfers the connection to the other contact. The connection of a switch of this type is based on connecting a conventional one, only the opposite terminals of the contacts here are pass-through switches scattered around the room and interconnected by wires leading to the phase of the lamp.
That is, if in the case of mounting a conventional switch, the phase from the box to one of the terminals and the phase reversal from the switch to the box from the other terminal comes from the same switch, then in the case of loop-throughs, the phase is sent to one switch, and the phase is returned to the box from the second switch. And the contact is made by closing and opening parallel lines, which are constantly connected to the contacts of the switches, as shown in the following figure.
It turns out that a phase (one red core) is supplied to the single terminal from the box to the switch, and a pair of parallel lines (wires) are returned to the box from the switch from two opposite terminals, which must directly follow to the other switch and come to two terminals between which power transfer is carried out. And already from the single terminal of the second switch, a core comes out, which, returning to the box, will go to power the chandelier, coupled directly with the neutral blue wire and green residential ground (if provided). Thus, in both cases, three-wire wires should be used from the outlet to the switch, and three-wire (in the case of grounding) and two-wire in the absence of grounding will go to the chandelier.
Connecting a two-gang pass-through
The two-gang switch-through switches are connected according to the same type, however, it is worth remembering that here each single terminal has its own pair of terminals of parallel lines between which switching is performed. The principle of operation of the circuit in this case is as follows:
Anyone who knows how to connect a single-pass switch through passage, it will not be difficult to connect two and three-key.
It is worth recalling that in order to avoid electric shock, all work on connecting the circuit breaker to the network should be carried out in a mode when all the machines in the main panel of the house are turned off, that is, the entire home electrical network (or the area where the connection is being performed) is de-energized.