There is a very interesting debut in chess - the Old Indian defense. This beginning is half-closed. It provides an opportunity for White to form a strong center to actively engage the flanks. When exchanging pawns in the middle of the board, good prospects for a figure game remain. As for blacks, they are able to successfully exert pressure directly along half-open verticals.
Many chess players for a long time tested various variations of the opening. Domestic players also made a certain contribution to the development of the system, among which stand out especially: Anatoly Karpov, Alexander Alekhin and Lev Polugaevsky. In practice, only a few options began to be actively applied.
In this case, White begins the game according to all the canons of the genre. They form an expanded center of pawns, while actively developing pieces located on the kingside. This is done for short castling. The tension in the middle of the board makes it difficult for the opponent to develop a flank with a queen and protects against possible counterplay.
Ideally, the Old Indian defense for whites implies the complete completion of development by the king. Attacks are built from the flank where the queen is. Black pieces still have several options for using counterplay. If necessary, the past can resort to all sorts of deviations, but they do not present the opponent with such difficulties as the classical system.
When using modern constructions, they usually prepare for a very complex party. Each side is required to show activity and make the most accurate moves. As a rule, it is he who achieves the victory who finds the enemy's weaknesses on one flank, while neutralizing threats on the other.
One of the most dangerous is the Old Indian defense for Black, when the game is based on White attacking in the center using counterattacks, usually carried out after castling. This is primarily due to the fact that it was possible to save pace to create a quick attack. One of the most flexible methods of defense is the one that allows one to develop a horse on c6 cell. Black pieces in this case, under certain circumstances, can counterattack with pawns. White has to confine himself to a calm game with short castling or to carry out an offensive with pawns. Black in both cases has excellent chances of developing counterplay.
There is an Old Indian defense aimed at suppressing the black counterattack. Promotion is carried out on cells f7 - f5 and e7 - e5. It should be noted that White’s development strategy is mainly designed to exchange heavy pieces. The emerging structure of pawns and freedom in the central part promise white in the final stage the best chances.
The best option for Black to play is to quickly undermine White directly in the middle of the field. Only the high activity of the figures in combination with tactics allows them to maintain some balance within the framework of such a game.
Old Indian Four-Pawn Defense
This option can bring a significant advantage to white pieces on a chessboard. However, this strategy also has disadvantages. The line of pawns restricts the movement of the bishops. In addition, it takes time to build a central barrier. Black at this time can quickly deploy his own forces. Applied Old Indian defense in this design forces White to reinforce the center with other pieces. Black is trying to provoke a clash in the near future, since he has an advantage in development. In practice, it becomes noticeable that striking white in the middle is quite effective.
Version with the development of an elephant on g2
This system is quite dangerous and difficult to master, like the Old Indian defense in Zemish chess. However, it is distinguished by its versatility. With the help of the flanking efforts of an elephant, pressure is exerted on the central part of the playing field. The sights are taken precisely on the queenside. The position of the king is strengthened after a short castling.
As a contrast, Black can use the Yugoslav version, which implies an active game on the flanks with a sufficiently fortified center. The final result will largely depend on whether White can competently use the relatively passive position of the black knight from the side of the queen.
Above we examined the ways in which the Old Indian defense could be constructed. The options, in fact, are not all, but only the most promising of them. It is also worth highlighting the Makogonov system, in which White tries to limit the potential of Black on the kingside, while maintaining interesting prospects on the opposite side of the chessboard.