In order to decorate and expand the space of their home or country house, a veranda is attached to it. It is possible to be on it in any season in any weather. In this article, we will look at how to create a veranda with your own hands step by step.
A self-made porch should not be considered a separate building. It should harmoniously fit into the overall building. Its construction can be carried out either simultaneously with the main building, or after some time. However, it should be borne in mind that if the foundations of the house and the veranda were carried out at different time intervals, then they will give a different drawdown. Given the fact that the latter will be attached to the main building, it can be skewed, or in some cases there may be gaps between the house and the veranda, which can be eliminated with foam.
The veranda is usually made from the front door of a residential building.
Types of Verandas
All buildings of this type are divided into 2 varieties:
The first of them has only a railing. The roof is fixed on the beams. Closed verandas are glazed. In this case, for some designers, the glass part may prevail over the wooden part.
Do-it-yourself veranda designs for the house should be designed in such a way that they match the overall facade of the building both in style and in the materials used. It should be borne in mind that it correlates with it in size.
As a rule, a self-made veranda is not heated and is intended for use in late spring - early autumn.
We prepare documents
Currently, country houses need to draw up documents that may be needed when selling them. Therefore, the extension must be legalized. It is better to take this action immediately, because if it is detected during the control raids, you will have to pay a fine.
To create a veranda project with your own hands, it is better to contact the appropriate organization. This does not mean that you will not create it yourself, but from a design point of view it is better to entrust the development to professionals.
After preparing the project, the owner takes it with him, as well as an identity card, statement, extract from the USR or other documents proving ownership, the necessary authorities visit to coordinate the extension, after which it will be possible to proceed with its construction. Upon its completion, the owner goes to the MFC, which through the Rosreestr carries out the registration of the dwelling with an extension made.
To create a veranda with your own hands, you must first prepare the following of them:
- a ruler;
- a wheelbarrow;
- a rope;
- a shovel;
- a piece of chalk;
- a circular or other saw;
- a piece of chalk.
Further, to create a high-quality extension, it is necessary to create a markup, which will exclude alteration of the work in case something goes wrong.
Selection of materials
As noted above, the veranda in the country house with your own hands, as in a country house, should be made of the appropriate building materials from which the main building is built. In the case of using glued beams in the construction of the house, the veranda should also be wooden. If the house is brick, then the extension must be at least lined with this material. The combination of, for example, wood and siding will not look aesthetically pleasing. Therefore, you need to pay special attention to the correct selection of materials.
When creating a porch with your own hands, you must first measure the distance from the front door to the potential location of the central pillar. It should be placed at a distance of radius from the formwork of the planned extension. At this point, a pole is mounted with an attached chalk or other device, with which you can draw the appropriate geometric shapes.
Consider creating markup using circles as an example. Two circles are made with chalk, one of which in radius coincides with the previously determined distance to the central support, and the second is one third of the first.
In most cases, the veranda is mounted on props. First you need to outline the places where they will be installed.
Several pegs are prepared, which they begin to mount to the right of the entrance on a circle with a smaller diameter. Tighten the rope counterclockwise at an angle of 45 degrees. The next peg is placed at the obtained point, and this process is carried out until the circle closes. Between the first and last hammered pegs there should be an entrance door.
After the end of the marking, a thread is launched around the circumference, which is tied to each peg.
Do-it-yourself construction of the veranda for the house should continue after the marking is done by creating the appropriate foundation. The simplest option is the placement of the pillars.
Initially, the central one is installed. To do this, dig a hole 1-1.5 meters deep, which is determined by freezing of the soil in the cold season. A pipe of a sufficiently large diameter (about 25 cm) is placed in this hole. You need to use the level, because the installation must be perfectly smooth.
At the bottom of the pit, gravel and sand are placed to create appropriate cushions.
The pipe is slightly cut and poured with concrete mixture, placing a 10 cm long bolt upside down in the center.
According to the circular marking, other pipes having a smaller diameter (about 15 cm) are placed. They should protrude above the soil level by at least 8 cm. They are also filled with concrete mortar.
Before the last action is carried out on the pipes, it is necessary to install the appropriate supports to create two squares, the first of which should include the odd ones, and the second - even supports.
The height of the pillars is determined based on the height of the floor in the main living room. The floor of the veranda is made 30 cm lower compared to that in the building so that its roof fits under the overhang of the roof of the house.
After drying the poured concrete, to continue creating the porch with your own hands, you need to create a formwork. For this, wooden bars arranged vertically are screwed to each support with screws. The height of the resulting structure should coincide with the central pillar. Next, connect the odd props. At the same time, boards of the required size are selected. On each even support, a triangle is made, which is located in the center of the board connecting the odd ones.
After that, a second square is formed, connecting even supports. When carrying out work, it is necessary to ensure that the faces of the created geometric second figure do not go inside the first. The result is an even octagon, serving as the basis of the formwork.
Attaching End Beams and Drive Boards
The number of the latter should coincide with the number of pegs that were installed earlier. Their length coincides with the radius determined in the previous steps. Place them from the central pillar through the various angles of the resulting octagon.
End beams are installed after accurate calculations. To do this, determine the length of each of them, which should be calculated as the product of the length of the leading board by the sine of 22.5 °.
Next, the leading boards are attached to the bolt that was installed in the first stages. In addition to it, you need to use another bolt, which has a large hat. To make the result more reliable, use a nut and washer secured from different sides.
After that, a layer of gravel about 5 cm thick is poured under the resulting structure.
They are placed the same number in each of the ready-made sectors of the future veranda, built with their own hands. The former are placed at a distance of 40 cm from the center and from each other, the latter divides the remaining space. The first section is not divided into subsections, and the subsequent ones are divided depending on their length by one, two, four, etc. beams.
This process is the most complex and time consuming.
To do this, first make the lower harness. Wooden beams (10 x 10 cm) are laid on brick pillars, connecting the corners of the first in a "half-tree". Mounting is carried out either with spikes with pre-made through holes, or with nails. Throughout the entire prepared lower harness, grooves for lags are made in the form of cubes with sides of 5 cm with a distance between them of at least half a meter. They are needed to install the racks.
Spikes of the required size are made on wooden bars intended for racks, which should be determined on the basis that they must enter into the grooves with some voltage. Racks are mounted vertically and fastened with brackets and nails.
To create support for the window, we fasten the transverse beam, reinforcing it with spikes.
From above we install the upper harness with the cutout of the grooves for the rafters, using the same nails, staples and spikes for fastening. The rafters are mounted on a horizontal beam, called a run, with the help of spikes and nails. The height is selected in such a way that the veranda attached by hands comes under the slope of the roof of the house.
Extreme racks are fastened with anchors.
Wall and roof construction, floor mounting
In order to get a veranda attached with your own hands to the house, you need to make the wall upholstery with light materials, for example, lining or boards. It is performed from the outside, starting from the lower trim to the window beam.
A lath is attached to the rafters, to which the flooring is made of roofing or waterproofing material.
When laying the floor on the logs, edged boards having a thickness of about 3-4 cm, impregnated with an antiseptic to protect against fungi and decay, are beaten, after which they are stained and, if necessary, the floor covering is laid.
When forming the octagonal veranda described above, flooring work starts from the outer edge to the center. In this case, the first row behind the end beam should protrude 2.5 cm. Next, wooden panels are placed on the floor that will hide all the bolts used. Finished columns and roof can be purchased at points of sale, so as not to mount on their own.
Photos of the veranda, built by yourself, are shown in the article.
Installation of doors and windows
The first of them will be placed in the space formed between the upper harness and the window sill. The line of window blocks should be located at the same level, fixing them is done with nails or wedges. We install wooden frames in the blocks and carry out the installation of glasses.
The door frame should fit the doorway in size. The latter is fixed using the 2 upper anchors. Carry out its horizontal and vertical alignment, after which the lower anchors are fastened.
Building a veranda with your own hands is not as difficult as it might seem at first glance. In this case, it is necessary to use the material from which the main building is built. The veranda should be on a solid foundation, in this article columnar is considered, but it can be monolithic, and its tape types. The decision to build the veranda should be accompanied by the consideration of the question of whether it will be attached to the house or not, since the foundations erected at different times give different shrinkage, which can lead to a skew of the structure under consideration. In addition, it must be borne in mind that a separate building does not apply to living space.