Due to serious deviations in the state of health, with the restriction of life, a person receives the status of “disabled person”. Disability is a condition of an individual with mental, mental or physical disabilities, in which there are obstacles to productive work. This status is established by special institutions of medical and social expertise. When considering the degree of health impairment, disability, people with disabilities are assigned certain disability groups, the benefits for which are established by the law of the Russian Federation.
Order of Establishment
On what grounds can an unhealthy person get disability? In Russia, these are the “Rules for Recognizing a Person with a Disability”, approved by the RF Government Resolution in 2006. They contain a general plan for determining this condition. The medical organization where the patient is examined, or the social protection authorities issue a referral to the Bureau of Medical and Social Expertise. The conditions for determining disability are:
- Permanent violations of the functions of the body, the causes of which are the disease, injuries.
- Full or partial limitation of life.
- The need for social protection.
Based on the results of the examination, a verdict on status assignment is issued. Disability is divided into groups depending on the disease. The first is assigned for 2 years, the second and third for one year. Up to the age of 18 years, a "disabled child" group is established. The establishment of disability is indefinitely possible no later than two years after the initial assignment of status in cases of diseases, disruption of organs, detected defects. It is also possible to assign a category indefinitely no later than four years after passing the examination in cases where it is confirmed that it is impossible to eliminate health disorders, despite the rehabilitation measures taken. You can appeal the decision of the medical and social examination a month after the verdict. The application for review of the case is submitted to the same bureau where it was considered.
The first group of health restrictions
In this category, disability is a severe social failure in which a person needs help. The main criteria for belonging to the first group are:
1. Full dependence on other people in self-care and travel.
3. Inability to communicate.
4. Uncontrolled behavior.
The category is divided into subgroups A and B. The first includes people with a high degree of impaired health, leading to the need for constant supervision and care. This category includes patients with paralysis of two or more limbs, heart disease, severe tuberculosis, having malignant tumors, and others.
Subgroup B includes people with significant dependence on other individuals and a partial inability to perform certain elements of self-care. The category is established for diseases such as bilateral anophthalmus, stumps of both lower extremities, paraplegia, total aphasia, renal failure of 4 degrees and others.
The second group of health restrictions
The main signs of belonging to this category are:
1. The ability to self-service and movement with the help of assistive devices.
2. The ability to carry out labor activities in specially created conditions at the equipped workplace, using auxiliary means.
3. The ability to study in special institutions or at home.
4. With the help of other persons, orientation in space and time is carried out.
5. The ability to communicate with the use of aids.
6. The ability to partially or fully control behavior.
In this case, disability is the ability to at least minimal self-care in the following diseases:
1. The active form of tuberculosis.
2. Cirrhosis of the lungs.
3. Consequences of mental illness lasting more than ten years.
4. Transplantation of internal organs (after five years under the supervision of a doctor).
5. Injury to the spinal cord with impaired mobility and others.
Disabled people in this category have a moderate disability. Often they can take care of themselves and lead a relatively independent lifestyle, but they need protection by social services and the help of others. Disability (the list of diseases is given above) gives people the opportunity to work, but with the obligation on the part of the employer to create special working conditions. To facilitate the work, additional breaks, an abbreviated change, a decrease in production standards, and additional vacation are provided.
Third disability group
What are the indications for establishing a category? In this case, disability is a person’s condition in which the following conditions are met:
- Self-service and movement using special means.
- Ability to learn and work in compliance with a special educational regime or when making the necessary adjustments to production activities.
- The ability to orientate in space and time using auxiliary means.
- Ability to communicate, characterized by a reduced speed of receiving and transmitting information, and a decrease in the amount of assimilation.
The group is assigned to people who are almost completely independent, who do not interfere with work and study disability. The list of diseases:
- a strong defect in the bones of the skull;
- the false joint of the shoulder or forearm;
- the absence of some fingers on the hand;
- stump of the thigh, foot, lower leg;
- dislocation of the hip joint with the impossibility of certain functions;
- scoliosis of the third degree;
- the absence of one lung, kidney;
- extirpation of the stomach and others.
The third group is working and does not limit labor. Reduction of the working day is not provided, a 40-hour week is set.
Children with disabilities
A child under 18 years old is classified as “disabled children” if he has significant disabilities. Hospitals of different levels may recommend establishing status. Such a recommendation is recorded in the history of the development of the child and in the medical outpatient card. Documents are sent to the medical institution, where the medical advisory commission draws up the necessary conclusion in two copies.
In cases where persons already over 18 are given the status of “disabled person”, and it is established that a health disorder began before adulthood, a person receives the category of “disabled childhood”. After this age, the patient undergoes a re-examination, after which he is given a certificate where the status is written. If the appeal to the medical and social examination
takes place for the first time, then during the examination documents are examined on the condition of the individual from birth to 18 years. It must be remembered that there are a number of pathologies in which it is enough for a person to submit documents about the diagnosis, as well as a certificate of examination by an expert commission. Such diseases include: complications after polio, congenital shortening of the limbs, oligophrenia and others. The status of a disabled child is given regardless of age and length of service.
Children with health problems
Disability of children under the age of 18 gives the right to a number of benefits:
- For the fall-spring period, a 50% discount on rail travel, on international buses and airlines.
- Travel on all types of public transport for free.
- Free travel to the treatment site in suburban and intercity buses.
- Once a year travel to the place of treatment and back at the expense of state funds.
- Provision of housing out of turn in the absence of parents or guardians.
- Families with a disabled child are given a discount of at least 50% on utility bills.
Families with a disabled child have a number of privileges. Namely - an early mother's pension, an additional four days off, a monthly compensation for the care of children with disabilities. When a child reaches 18 years of age, he enjoys the benefits of one of the three disability groups.
Pension calculation for a disabled child
In 2015, an increase in disability pension and social benefits is expected. So, for disabled children, it will amount to 1035 rubles, which will be expressed in the total monthly payment of 11411.86 rubles. A disabled person with no work experience is entitled to a social pension. Parents of children with disabilities are provided with an early pension with a working experience of mother from 15 years old, father - 20. Guardians who raised a child up to eight years of age, provision is calculated with a decrease in retirement age by one year for every one and a half years of guardianship, but not more than 5 years. The legislation contains a clause on the inclusion of periods for caring for children with disabilities or a disabled person of the first group in the insurance and general work experience.
Disability groups. Privileges
Housing law provides for the provision of housing, its size, as well as benefits for paying utility bills
for this category. Citizens with the following diseases can apply for housing out of turn: active forms of tuberculosis, malignant tumors with copious discharge, epilepsy, gangrene of the extremities, mental disorders with severe exacerbations, intestinal and urethral fistulas, and others. People with disabilities have the right to a separate room, which is taken into account when registering to improve housing conditions. Also, the individual retains the area occupied by him in the houses of the housing stock, if he is placed in a stationary institution.
Disability in Russia is supported by a number of benefits. So, for the first group, the following privileges:
- Labor and social pension.
- Prescription free medication.
- Treatment in sanatoriums at the expense of the state.
- Payment or compensation for the cost of train or plane tickets.
- Ground transportation at state expense.
- Discounts on utility bills, telephone, electricity.
- The possibility of obtaining additional living space by people with certain diseases that interfere with living with other people.
- If a disabled person needs to be provided with dentures and orthopedic shoes, this service is provided free of charge.
- Out-of-competition admission to professional educational institutions.
- A social worker and others are provided.
For the second category of disability in the list of benefits there are a number of changes. For example, the establishment of a reduced working week while maintaining full wages. When determining benefits for the third group, they are guided by a number of nuances. Some citizens of this category have the right to take advantage of one type of advantage (for example, free spa treatment), and the other with something else (free travel by public transport). The general list of benefits for disabled people of the third group is as follows:
- Persons with disabilities from childhood are exempt from paying property taxes, registration fees from individuals who have expressed a desire to do business.
- Exemption from tax on the purchase of a car that is specially equipped for use by people with disabilities.
- A discount on the purchase of prescription drugs (if the individual is recognized as unemployed).
- The provision of thirty-day leave, as well as additional leave without pay.
- Discounts for utility bills and others.
Most people with disabilities rely on home-based social services. For example, the purchase of medicines, goods, products, cleaning apartments. The list of disability groups makes it possible to correctly determine the benefits and services that people are entitled to.
All three disability groups are entitled to a retirement pension, regardless of the reasons that caused this condition, the length of the insurance period, or the availability of work.
What are the conditions for obtaining a pension for persons with disabilities? Firstly, it belongs to the category of military personnel, participants in the Second World War, astronauts, citizens who were injured as a result of man-made and radiation disasters. Secondly, the establishment of disability by federal state institutions of medical and social expertise. Thirdly, fixing the time of injury or illness. So, for example, for military personnel a pension is supposed if a health violation occurred during the course of service. For persons who have suffered in disasters, a prerequisite for accruing money is the definition of a disability group.
Disability pension has several types. The first type is a retirement pension. She is assigned to a disabled person of any group if he has a minimum length of service at work (maybe even one day). The main condition is the payment of insurance premiums by the organization. The second type is state pension. It is assigned to participants of the Second World War, military personnel, individuals who have suffered from radiation or man-made disasters. Social pension is the third type of pension accrued to each disabled person, regardless of seniority. According to the pension law, if a citizen has a reason to receive two types of pensions, he is paid one that is larger in size. People who have received injuries in military conflicts and other categories are entitled to the simultaneous appropriation of several types of payments.
Help opportunities in Russia
Our country has organized wide support for people with disabilities. This status allows you to receive benefits, medicines at the expense of the state, technical means of recovery, discounts on travel and housing, vouchers to sanatoriums. The rehabilitation of persons with disabilities implies a whole range of social and health measures.
Since 1999, the country has been the "Union of the Disabled of Russia", which organizes various charitable, state events. The organization "Perspective" seeks in every possible way to promote the independence of the disabled and improve their living standards. In many cities of Russia there is a network of Independent Life companies that also deal with the problems of citizens with disabilities. Some private companies support people with disabilities. So, the company "Megaphone" has a tariff "Contact" for people with hearing impairments. Of course, our country is far from ideal in this area, but we are on the way to creating a barrier-free environment in every city, and the rehabilitation of disabled people will be one of the main tasks of the state.