Problems with cleaning sewage deliver a lot of trouble to the owners of suburban real estate. Owners of private homes are most urgently faced with the issue of connecting to the central sewage line. In rural areas, sewer pipelines are a rarity.
Creation of autonomous sewage in private households
To create comfortable living conditions, homeowners themselves need to take care of the disposal of liquid human waste. There are only two options for resolving the issue:
- create a local treatment system with a cesspool;
- install a septic tank for a high level of groundwater.
In economic terms, the second option is considered less costly. For a house in the countryside, you need to install a septic tank for a summer residence. A high level of groundwater will require additional costs for pumping and transporting the accumulated liquid. And the services of a cesspool machine are expensive.
Installing a factory-made septic tank will require large investments at the initial stage of the construction of a sewage system. But in the process of operation, the costs will pay off with interest. What septic tank with a high level of groundwater to choose for a private house is a question that should be studied in detail.
If moisture comes out at a depth below three meters, then feel free to buy any installation. But when the liquid appears in a meter thick soil, then the choice of equipment for autonomous sewage is limited to several models, which will be described below.
Determination of the level of groundwater
There are several ways to find out this parameter:
- ask neighbors, ask old-timers of the locality in which your house or summer cottage is located;
- to drill a well with a depth of one and a half to two meters (which corresponds to the optimal level in which it is planned to place a septic tank for a high level of groundwater).
Important! The best time of year to determine the exact horizon of the liquid underground in a particular area is considered to be early spring, when snow melts.
The obtained measurement results will be the starting point in the process of selecting and acquiring the equipment necessary to create a sewage system in a private house.
Installing a septic tank requires special construction technology. The equipment is carefully fixed on a concrete base.
Otherwise, during the spring flood, sewer tanks will squeeze out of the ground. Depressurization will occur and environmental damage will be caused to the surrounding area.
The process of discharging, collecting and disposing of sewage is quite simple:
- dirty water is piped into the first tank;
- insoluble suspensions settle at the bottom of the sump;
- fermentation begins in water due to bacteria living in the reservoir (they feed on solid deposits);
- gas emitted by microorganisms - methane (it is explosive) is discharged through a fan pipe into the atmosphere;
- 75% purified liquid flows into the underground drainage layer or on the filtration field;
- sediment deposited at the bottom is removed independently or by community service workers.
An additional installation of a biofilter in the septic tank increases the degree of sewage treatment up to 90%. Anaerobic bacteria process solid impurities in sewers and turn them into sludge. From time to time, the precipitate is removed manually.
After the initial cleaning, the liquid enters the aeration tank, in which the fermentation process continues. The rate of accumulation of effluents in autonomous sewage tanks depends on the intensity of water use and the number of people living in the house.
The calculation of the capacity of the treatment plant
Sanitary standards require that a septic tank for a high level of groundwater contain a three-day volume of sewage. Legislative acts establish the amount of water consumption for domestic needs: 200 liters per day per person living in the house. Therefore, for families with four members, a septic tank will be required with a high level of groundwater with a minimum reservoir volume of 2,400 liters.
Most local wastewater treatment plants have two or three chambers.
The capacity of the second capacity can be reduced by one quarter in relation to the first.
When designing a structure, it is necessary to ensure the possibility of accepting a salvo discharge.
This parameter is calculated by the level of placement of the device for overflowing liquid from the first tank to the second.
The higher the tap, the less free space remains in the first receiving compartment. The location of the overflow pipe determines the performance of the septic tank.
Which septic tank is better
A review of plumbing devices for local sewage systems revealed that the market offers a lot of models for consumers with excellent technical characteristics.
Focusing on sales volumes and studying customer reviews, we made a short rating of factory-made units:
- septic tank with Ecopan biofilter . Consists of six chambers made of durable polymer. Its capacity is enough for the disposal of waste of 6-8 people;
- installation "Breeze". Able to meet the needs of 3-5 people permanently living in a country house. The equipment consists of a double tank with a biofilter;
- septic tank "Count". Modular design. The kit is made with one, two or three containers;
- local cleaning system "Astra". High performance sewer station. A specific model is selected according to the number of residents in the house. It is able to utilize drains from several cottages.
There is no doubt that industrial production facilities are recognized as the best septic tanks. Manufacturers guarantee 100% tightness of their equipment. Home-made structures, such as prefabricated reinforced concrete septic tanks, cope much worse with a high level of groundwater.
Factory installations are equipped with a filtration system that meets the requirements of sanitary standards, and perfectly cope with loads.
Equipment manufactured in an industrial environment has powerful protection against mechanical external damage.
Homemade sumps are not able to compete with factory settings. Often they leak and leakage into the ground.
Useful advice. If the homeowner has no experience in arranging sewage, we recommend that you invite a specialist for advice. A professional will study the features of the territory and determine the required volume of waste disposal. It will help you to choose and tell you how to correctly install a septic tank with a high level of groundwater to protect it from arbitrary ascent.
These septic tanks are purchased for installation in households with temporary residence of people. Concrete septic tank with a high level of groundwater is ideal for placement in cottages. Simple and inexpensive models are designed for processing small volumes. Capacity capacity is determined on the basis of the average daily water consumption by one person: 60-300 liters. For cleaning you will have to order a cesspool machine. It is necessary to weigh all the arguments, and only then make a decision in favor of acquiring and installing a funded type.
When choosing equipment, pay close attention to the wall thickness of the tank. Keep in mind that he will have to withstand enormous loads. Ground pressure increases in areas with high groundwater levels.
The place for placement of the structure is selected taking into account the provision of a free access for the cesspool machine.
The storage tank can be made by yourself. An ideal option is a monolithic reinforced concrete structure. It corresponds to the main parameter for septic tanks with a high level of groundwater - tightness.
To create a local treatment plant of an accumulative type, the following are used:
- iron tanks;
- plastic containers;
Effluents are sent through a sewer pipe to a container buried in the ground. The high location of groundwater is not an obstacle to such facilities.
The main disadvantage of storage septic tanks is their high operating costs and the spread of unpleasant odors (it increases during pumping).
Biological wastewater treatment
The equipment is manufactured only in the factory. In septic tanks, conditions are created for the life of bacteria. They recycle waste coming from the sewer into a collection tank. To maintain the conditions for the productive activity of biological microorganisms, saturation of the liquid with oxygen is required. For this purpose, air compressors are included in the factory kits. The movement of fluid from one chamber to another is carried out by an integrated pump.
A septic tank for a high level of groundwater with a biological treatment function is considered the most effective construction for the disposal of sewage. The purified liquid is safely used for watering the lawn, vegetable garden and garden.
Septic tanks have low power consumption. The only drawback is the high cost of the equipment. High-quality designs, unfortunately, are not cheap.
The procedure for installing a septic tank in an area with a high level of groundwater is as follows:
- dig a pit, the size of which will exceed the dimensions of the installation by 50 cm around the perimeter;
- at the bottom of the pit lay a concrete slab or fill the site with a solution of sand, gravel and water;
- securely attach equipment to the sole;
- fill half of the tanks with water and fill the pit with soil at the same level, pouring water from the hose to the layers of the earth;
- add liquid to the septic tank to the full volume and finish filling the foundation pit.
Loose plastic tanks can float during spring floods. In order to avoid such a nuisance, in areas with a high level of subsoil water, for fastening installations, in addition to anchor bolts, bandage belts are used.
Sumps made of concrete rings
They are built using lifting mechanisms. Reinforced concrete rings are installed in a pre-prepared foundation pit. Their number is determined by the three-day volume of sewage or the depth of a dug hole.
The first ring is mounted on a concrete base.
The second fits on top of the solution. If necessary, then install the third and fourth ring. All seams are covered with cement mortar with liquid glass.
A concrete septic tank with a high level of groundwater is considered the best construction for personal plots among similar do-it-yourself systems.
The design advantage is reliability and durability. Of the shortcomings, it is worth noting the complexity of the installation work. You can’t do without a truck crane. Defective rings may contain subtle cracks that will shorten the life of the structure.
The idea of creating a septic tank for autonomous sewage from several sealed containers has recently appeared. But she already managed to conquer many lovers of the construction of sewage treatment plants with her own hands. To create a septic tank, you will need to purchase two or three Eurocubes. They are sequentially mounted in the pit.
The attractiveness of the idea consists of:
- an inexpensive way to create a septic tank (the price of a eurocube is lower than factory-made equipment);
- ease of installation (the container has a small weight);
- resistance of polymers to aggressive environments.
Negative points: it is impossible to provide forced flow of fluid between containers.
The construction of septic tanks from Eurocubes is not recommended on land plots with a high level of groundwater.
Do-it-yourself installation and installation
The construction of wastewater treatment facilities on household plots of rubble stone, brick, old tires for trucks or other improvised materials is a thing of the past. The main obstacle to the aforementioned home-made devices is the inability to eliminate the leakage of effluents outside the containers.
Metal tanks are required to be coated with an anti-corrosion compound. The service life of iron tanks is less than that of polymer products.
Keep in mind, if you decide to build a septic tank with your own hands, a high level of groundwater indicates the choice of plastic tanks. They are sold in any size and configuration. Tanks are made from:
Tanks have high strength against mechanical damage, successfully withstand high soil pressure and chemicals (detergents, detergents, washing powders).
Useful advice! For home-made septic tanks for deep sewage treatment, install the overflow pipe at a level, stepping back from the top edge of 1 / 2-1 / 3 of the tank height. A pipe inserted at such a level in Eurocube structures will provide free space for receiving a salvo discharge of 300 liters.
A few words about the installation and installation of a septic tank. The high level of groundwater greatly complicates the construction of the facility. Keep this in mind.
Monolithic reinforced concrete structure
Cast constructions are recommended to be erected in areas with a high level of groundwater. Installation work begins with the placement of reinforced concrete platforms at the bottom of the pit.
An ideal solution to the problem would be the installation of monolithic structures, of which a septic tank is composed at a high level of groundwater. User reviews indicate that this is the best solution for creating an autonomous sewer.
The external and internal surfaces are covered with a waterproofing composition.
For the overflow of drains, holes are made into which pipes are inserted.
The movement of fluid between the tanks is an important condition for the normal functioning of the installation.
The top plate is made with holes for the hatch and fan pipe. A sewer line is laid from the house along a trench filled half with sand.
They are created in household plots with a high level of groundwater. The final treatment of sewage takes place on a specially created site. For this purpose, determine the place where the liquid will be discharged at the outlet of the septic tank.
The fertile soil layer is removed from the marked area. At the edges of the embankment. The foundation pit is covered with sand mixed with fine gravel. Treated water is discharged into nearby water bodies or into the drainage system.