The last few decades, humanity has been producing household waste on a massive scale. In a modern city, about 300 kg of garbage per person accumulate over a year, so garbage recycling is one of the most pressing issues today.
The removal and disposal of household waste is a very specific type of activity that requires the use of special technology. In the process of processing, it is necessary not only to monitor the implementation of numerous norms and rules, but also to use machinery and equipment. Very often, industrial waste contains substances harmful to humans - heavy metals, dioxides, fluoride compounds. All of them are very dangerous for human health. Harmful substances
with rainwater fall into the soil, sulfur dioxide
and methane are released in large quantities in the air. There is a danger of spontaneous combustion from landfill debris. In addition, illegal landfills are a hotbed of insects and rodents.
A modern approach to this problem is the disposal of household waste and the possibility of their further use. Spending time, energy and money on waste disposal is wasteful. However, modern technologies allow not only safe processing of waste, but also benefit from it. Utilization of household waste requires a certain type of processing, as a result of which the possibility of their secondary use will be obtained.
Waste paper, scrap metal and glass can be directly reused. Building waste that does not change its properties can be buried in the ground. Solid waste is mainly used to produce fuel. The fuel obtained after processing the waste is
equivalent in quality to brown coal and peat. Scientists believe that the energy received by the conversion of waste into energy and fuel can cover a third of the needs of world economies. Another use of solid waste is to shred it and turn it into building materials. For example, crushed and pressed plastics are mixed with asphalt and petroleum resins and used for road construction. Also shredded plastic goes to the production of films, roofing materials and toys.
Disposal of household waste that needs to undergo intermediate processing is alkali, acid, waste oil. Part of the sediment is dehydrated and dried. Some combustible products, such as used oils and plastics, are burnt. Utilization of household and industrial waste has been established at modern waste recycling plants, special technologies allow sorting, crushing garbage and identifying fractions that are harmful to the environment and human health. Globally, uncontrolled accumulation of household and industrial waste causes the threat of a change in the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in nature, a decrease in the amount of clean drinking water. They entail soil pollution
and degradation of water bodies, climate change.
The most important task of the global economy is to ensure that the disposal of household waste moves from a number of hazardous to a number of safe technologies.