A computer network protocol is a specially designed means by which computers 'communicate' through a network

Surely, many understand that computers located in different parts of the planet, increasing in quantity, sooner or later had to "learn" to communicate with each other and become able to work together. The means of such communication are computer networks, which are local and global. As for local networks, these are networks that combine computers located at short distances from each other, for example, in the same building. The main purpose of global networks is to connect networks and computers separated by vast distances - hundreds and thousands of kilometers. The largest global network on the planet is the Internet.

Even an understanding of the theoretical foundations of the functioning of networks often does not allow a person to continue a rather simple phrase: a computer network protocol is ... Below we’ll try to figure out what network protocols are and why they are needed. Just note, the computer network protocol is a fundamental point that makes it possible to organize communication between computers, regardless of the distance that separates them.

The fact is that simply connecting one computer to another - the step necessary to create a computer network is not enough. In order for the ability to transmit information on the network to become available, it is necessary that computers "understand" each other. The computer network protocol is a specially developed means by which computers “communicate” through the network in a “language” that is understandable to each other. In addition, the computer network protocol is a set of rules, adhering to which you can organize the transfer of data between computers.

In order to fully understand what a protocol is, we digress from the computer industry. Even a person who has never encountered networks and the Internet has encountered devices in everyday life whose functioning is also based on specially developed protocols. For example, regular telephone communication, which everyone uses, is based on its own protocol, which allows the devices to establish the fact of picking up the handset on the device that receives the call, recognize the fact of disconnection, as well as the number of the caller.

We hope that it is now clear why the computer world needed a single language (called the protocol) that is understandable to every computer in the world.

The main Internet protocols are presented by TCP / IP, POP3, SMTP, FTP, HTTP, IMAP4, WAIS, Gorpher, WAP. Each of these protocols performs certain functions.

The basic protocol on the Internet is TCP / IP, a protocol created by the best minds of mankind. One of the creators of this protocol was Winton Cerf. Today, this person is considered the "father of the Global Network." Vinton Cerf is currently working as Senior Vice President for the creation and development of the Internet architecture of MCI WorldCom Inc.

Work on the Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (i.e. TCP / IP) was completed in 1972 by a group of developers led by Vinton Cerf.

Initially, TCP / IP was developed for the needs of the US Department of Defense, but then the protocol outgrew its purpose and became the basic set of rules that allowed the global Internet to rapidly develop. In addition, small networks using Internet technologies - intranets - operate on this protocol. Today, TCP / IP standards are open protocols and are constantly being improved.

It is worth noting that TCP / IP is not really one protocol, in essence it is a whole list of protocols that work together. The protocol consists of two levels. The purpose of the top-level protocol - TCP, is to organize the correct conversion of data into information packets, which, upon reaching the receiving side, become the basis for constructing the initial message. The protocol of the lower level - IP developers have been obliged to monitor the correct delivery of messages to the destination address.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/A10150/

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