Monological speech, or monologue, is a form of speech when one person speaks out, the rest only listen. Signs of it are the duration of the statement, which most often has a different volume, and the structure of the text, and the topic of the monologue can change during the statement.
Coherent monologue speech is divided into two main types. The first is an appeal to the listener. It can be a message that needs to be announced to a large number of people, an appeal to the listener or many listeners. Examples of such a monologue are academic lectures or reports, public speaking, and court speech.
The monologue speech of the second type is a conversation with oneself. Such a monologue is sent to an indefinite listener and, therefore, does not imply a response.
From the point of view of linguistics, several types of monologues are distinguished. They depend on the communicative function of speech and are all studied back in school: description, communication, narration.
The story is characterized by the presence of a plot, most often the plot and outcome. In this case, monologic speech is used most often. A clear chronological sequence of actions is more characteristic of the message. And also this type of speech is used to describe - it is necessary to have facts that most vividly describe the described object.
Monological speech requires the speaker to correctly express and finish his own thoughts, combine various phrases, supplement and change the already learned speech constructions and adapt them in accordance with his goals, discuss the facts and disclose the known causes of the events.
Learning monologue speech is the formation of a person’s specific skills and abilities to express their thoughts with the help of speech structures. That is, people learn correctly from the point of view of speech structures and it is interesting to use the already learned materials of the language and express their thoughts intelligently.
For a satisfactory level of mastery of competent monologic speech, students should develop the following skills:
- The construction of narrative and descriptive messages on a familiar topic can be based on pictures, files, presentation.
- Using the learned typical sentences, compose sequential messages, connecting them together.
- Compose descriptive texts expressing your opinion, following the plan drawn up or without it. The text can describe the event, characterize the persons present, express their own impressions.
Monological speech is improved through exercises that differ in support.
- Exercise based on a plan or situation.
- Exercise based on finished material, for example, answers to questions or a description of a work or film.
- Exercises based on the finished text.
- Exercises based on a visual situation, for example, a description of the subject in front of the student.
- Exercises based on the finished design, or logic diagram. For example, “I love” or “I do well.”