Handicraft accompanied humanity at the most important stages of its development. But what is the position of craft activity in the world today and, in particular, in Russia? Unfortunately, both ordinary and scientific ideas about the craft are now quite vague and contradictory. Someone considers it a kind of "vestigial" of the modern economy. And someone, on the contrary, defines it as a unique economic, social phenomenon that is characteristic and relevant for all eras. In the article we will analyze in detail what is called craft activity, what is its significance in modern Russia.
Origin of the word
"Craft" originally comes from the old Russian word "craftsmanship". Close in meaning is also the "handicraft". In its meaning, it is closer to foreign ones: English. handicraft and dumb. handwerk.
"Craft" is the most modern sound of the word. So our ancestors began to speak only in the XVII century.
Handicraft activity is an occupation of some type of craft. It can be aimed at the production of labor products, which are handicrafts that are designed to satisfy the aesthetic, utilitarian, ritual and other needs of citizens.
Handicraft activity is a cultural and creative transformation of the surrounding reality that occurs under the conditions of the alienation of labor, as well as means of production from the entity engaged in such activities, as well as from functional restrictions associated with the division of labor.
Handicraft is also defined as a system of social relations that appears in the process of production and sale of products made by small enterprises, family farms, where there is no functional division of labor. Here the means of production will be owned (or leased) from the producing entity. As a rule, products for all types of craft activities are produced in small quantities. For the most part - as part of an individual order.
In such a system, both the subjects of handicraft activities and the agents of handicraft will act. Who is it? They are actors who provide diverse support for handicrafts. For example, state, public, municipal, commercial, private organizations.
Consider the types of craft activities that exist today. They are divided according to the results of handicraft:
- Industrial relations that arise in the process of creating, selling any products of individual creativity. The latter may be unique samples and models, works of DPI, copyright developments and so on.
- Industrial relations that arise during the creation and further sale of products designed to meet the needs of any specific citizens. Example: custom-made products.
- Production relations that arise in the process of creating and further selling small-scale production items sold individually. They, for example, may be goods for mass consumption.
- Industrial relations that arise regarding the implementation of any domestic services. For example, housing and communal services.
Concept in other countries of the world.
It should be noted that the implementation of craft activities is not today something unusual for the leading states of the world. Terms such as "handicraft", "artisan" are universally used in the national laws of the countries of the same European Union, UN and WTO.
We will analyze international interpretations of the most important concepts:
- Craft enterprises. This is the name of small business structures (resembling Russian entrepreneurs) that provide the population with the services and goods necessary for arranging everyday life and comfortable living. The purpose of such products is quite wide: from the improvement of the premises to changing the appearance of a person.
- Handicraft activity (in its foreign sense). The complex of labor activities (entrepreneurial and / or industrial), which is based on personal contribution, work of the employee. At the same time, he applies his special knowledge, skills, uses well-known technologies, materials. It can use modern high-performance equipment and tools up to the automation of some parts, stages of the process.
In this vein, one does not include craft production activity, the result of which is any intellectual product / service.
What is not handicraft?
The list of types of craftsmanship does not include some types of employment based on physical labor.
- An activity that does not require the contractor to have any qualifications. For example, work as a janitor or a loader.
- Activities related to the transport, use of vehicles. So, drivers, pilots will not be able to call themselves artisans.
- Activities that are associated with the sale of not their products, products. This is the work of the seller, packer and so on.
- Activities related to agricultural extractive industries. For example, a breeder, prospector, field breeder and so on.
- Activities in the public sector. These are such niches as the economy, the educational sector, communications, healthcare, culture and so on.
- All activities carried out at large and medium-sized enterprises. Handicraft is only the activity of small organizations (average staff - from 15 to 100 people) and microenterprises (average number of employees - up to 15 people), as well as individual entrepreneurs.
Handicraft and economic sectors
The entire list of craft activities can be divided into three sectors of the economy:
- Industry. For example, non-serial, small-scale production of art products.
- Housing and communal services.
It is worth noting that such a division of the list of craft activities was also relevant for pre-revolutionary Russia.
Handicraft is also defined as a special type of business in which the quality of products or services comes to the fore. Making a profit is a secondary result of such a business.
Craftsman-IP is forced to focus on the local market. He should not only study his inner circle, but also establish trusting relationships with him. After all, it is these people who will become his customers.
In order to achieve recognition, the artisan needs to fulfill his work impeccably, in good conscience, and cultivate a high technological and industrial culture in his own enterprise.
As you know, the main motto of the business community: "Profit above all!". For artisans, the position is fundamentally different: "Honor and a good name are above all!"
Another feature of handicraft is that it combines quite diverse activities. Therefore, for example, in the Russian market, a craftsman is a new type of worker.
How to arrange a craft activity? The question is rather complicated in relation to the laws of the Russian Federation. Indeed, in our country the legislation governing handicrafts has not been introduced. The only possible option is to register an IP or establish an LLC.
The problem rests in the ambiguous status of the craftsman:
- Highly qualified worker.
- Technologist who manages the entire process of manufacturing their own products.
- Entrepreneur working in direct contact with consumers of their own products. He possesses all the competencies that are important for a business person - legal, economic, and communicative.
Education and training
It has already been noted that the law on the implementation by individuals of handicraft activities is still only being discussed in Russia. Therefore, the question of training specialists of a new type has not yet been raised. Since the status of a craftsman is diverse, the organization of training for specialists in this field requires a special approach. Radically different in methodology, structure and content from the same training of highly skilled workers.
The following is required:
- Updated educational programs, which will be supplemented by blocks of competencies focused on the formation of important professional qualities of an artisan entrepreneur.
- A special organizational and methodological and scientific and methodological knowledge base.
- Creation of a qualitatively new level of education - professional craft.
Handicraft problems in the Russian Federation
A craft tax, for example, has been introduced in the neighboring republic of Belarus. But for the time being, it is not yet relevant for the Russian Federation - legislation on craftsmanship has not been adopted in our country.
This type of activity faces certain development difficulties in the Russian Federation:
- Misunderstanding and underestimation of the majority of society's role and importance of modern handicraft.
- The majority of the population by craftsmanship refers only to folk crafts and art products.
- Lack of both a legislative framework and professional standards for craftsmanship.
- The above factor does not allow to organize high-quality training of artisans.
Fees for the implementation of craft activities in Russia have not yet been introduced. The fact is that in the Russian Federation there is no legislation regulating such employment.
But things do not stand still. The project "New Artisans of Russia" was created. He was supported by the head of the ASI National Council (decoding - Agency for Strategic Initiatives), President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin. He recommended the project for implementation in 2012.
The goal of the New Craftsmen is to develop a legislative framework for the legitimization of craft activities in the Russian Federation. By developing such federal legislation, it will also be possible to form a qualitatively new type, level of education, that is, the training of artisan entrepreneurs.
As a result, young people will have new opportunities due to the development of the craft niche of the economy, the emergence of new relevant professions on the market. Implementation of the project will start the process of developing professional standards and educational programs, which will expand the possibilities of personal realization of the population.
The complexity of the implementation of the New Artisans project lies in the fact that the following measures are required for its implementation:
- Introduction for artisans of a special tax regime with simplified registration and reporting.
- Development and adoption of a ten-year federal target program related to the support of handicrafts in the Russian Federation.
- Development of educational and professional standards.
- Introduction for this sphere of honorary, incentive titles. For example, "Honored Craftsman of the Russian Federation."
- Establishing a special procedure for the participation of subjects of similar activities as suppliers, contractors, contractors.
- Organization of regional, national competitions, which will identify the best, promising masters.
Handicraft can be called one of the oldest forms of employment of people. It does not lose its relevance to this day in many leading states. In Russia today, there is no legislation regulating such activities. But work is already underway on a project that will establish a new status as a craftsman.