Wood carving is a very ancient art. Even the approximate date of its occurrence is unknown. Our ancestors carved patterns, figures of animals and people, sculptures. Often this was for religious purposes, for example, masks of pagan gods and spirits, totems.
Today, wood carving also has its fans. Someone is doing it just for fun, and someone for making money.
There are several basic types of threads:
- sawing and slotted;
- relief carving;
- geometric thread;
- sculptural carving.
The most complex and interesting is the sculptural wood carving. About her further and will be discussed.
Features of sculptural carving
This includes both small children's toys and huge statues. The main thing is that the sculpture should be processed from all sides and it can be viewed from different angles. Any terrain is allowed - low or high.
Sculptural woodcarving for beginners is very complex. It is significantly different from other forms of art. To do a good job, the carver must have a good command of all tools and other types of thread. It is also necessary to see the figure in volume.
What is needed for sculptural woodcarving
In order to start work, it is not enough to possess only knowledge and skills. It is necessary to acquire special tools and, preferably, a workbench. Of course, there are special machines for sculptural carving, but this is a completely different topic.
Basic tools for sculptural wood carvings:
- Jamb knife. It is used to create small recesses. Got this name because of the beveled at 35 - 60 ° blades.
- Knife cutter. It is convenient for them to handle rounded elements.
- Chisels of various shapes. Semicircular is used as the main tool for all types of thread, straight lines - as an auxiliary. Other forms are used less frequently.
- Bogorodsky knife. It is used for sculptural woodcarving.
- Ax. It is used to remove the bark and create a rough form of sculpture.
Special kits are sold in stores where all of these tools are. They must be of high quality, otherwise they will break and chop wood.
Selection and processing of wood
Before proceeding with the processing of wood, it must be removed. Different species are used: linden, maple, alder, birch, etc. If there is little experience, it is better to use linden. It has a uniform color and is easy to process.
The material must be of good quality. There should be no cracks, holes, knots. If you don’t know how the tree looks and is suitable for sculptural carving, you can look at photos and characteristics on the Internet.
When the material is selected, proceed to its processing. First, the bark is removed. It must be removed carefully so as not to damage the inside. For this, they usually use an ax, a brace or tesla.
Then you need to dry the wood. To do this, it is completely covered with drying oil or paint and wrapped in paper. And then there is a long drying process, which can take up to 2 years. The workpiece is first stored in the open air, and then in a well-ventilated and bright room.
Drying is considered complete when the wood moisture reaches 8 - 10%.
When all the tools and a piece of wood are ready, you can get to work.
Before you start, you can make a sculpture model. This is optional, but it will be easier with her. It is made of gypsum or clay.
Now the threading process itself:
- First, the workpiece is fixed so that it is convenient to approach it from either side. Well, if there is a special workbench for this.
- The next step is drawing the main contours of the future sculpture. Then comes the rough machining with an ax.
- Then the coarse forms are removed with large chisels, and the small ones reveal details.
- In the end, with the help of small sections create details and relief of the sculpture. Everything must be done carefully so as not to create cracks.
After the sculpture has been created, its surface is polished. However, some parts may not be processed if it is not necessary.
The sculpture is sent for drying. At this time, cracks may appear that need to be removed. To do this, use the same wood species from which the sculpture is made: first, a cast is made, a plug is cut out on it and inserted along the contour. If this is not an option, then the crack is simply filled with colorless varnish.