The ear is the most important organ of man, it is thanks to him that we can perceive the sounds of the environment. Unfortunately, like ailments of other organs, a variety of ear diseases often develop. Symptoms and treatment of this phenomenon will be considered in the article.
People’s ear diseases can develop for a variety of reasons. The most common sources of hearing disease are:
Inflammatory process in the auditory opening.
Ordinary draft can provoke serious pathology of the organ of hearing. Children are more prone to this, because their ears are more sensitive to drafts than adults.
The transferred disease leads to suppuration in a certain area of the ear canal.
Diseases of people's ears can develop due to various fungi, and this in no way depends on hygiene of the auricles.
In rare cases, the disease is the result of injuries of the ear canal, athletes are more prone to this.
The image on the right shows an example of an ear disease (photo). In humans, various pathologies of the hearing organ develop quite often. Therefore, it is important to know how they appear and what the treatment is.
Human Ear Diseases: Symptoms
The main clinical manifestation of the disease is pain. Most often, pain is felt in case of inflammation of the auditory analyzer. Its intensity may be different. The pain often radiates to the eye, lower jaw, or manifests itself in swallowing and chewing movements, often the headache on the affected side.
Various manifestations of tinnitus, hearing loss, autophony (a condition in which a person hears his voice with a stuffy ear) are the manifestations of a person’s ear disease. Symptoms can be not only local, but also general, often the body temperature rises, insomnia develops, and appetite decreases.
Types of pathologies of the hearing organ
Diseases of people's ears can be quite dangerous. Despite the similarity of manifestations, they are very diverse. Consider the most common diseases of the human ear. Treatment for each type of pathology is prescribed by the doctor after a medical examination.
The cause of this pathology may be congenital or acquired (up to 3 years) deafness. Congenital deafness develops in the embryonic period under the influence of harmful factors during pregnancy (viral diseases, syphilis, toxic substances, medications, vitamin deficiency, etc.). The hereditary form, as a rule, is combined with malformations of the middle and inner ear. Acquired forms are more common and are the result of transferred infectious ailments, the influence of ototoxic drugs. Due to deafness, dumbness develops.
Treatment in this case is ineffective. All efforts should be directed to the teaching of verbal speech in specialized institutions. Modern techniques will help to achieve good social rehabilitation.
This condition is most often the result of vascular disorders (hemorrhage, thrombosis, embolism, vascular spasm) and viral infections. It occurs in conditions such as blood diseases, syphilis, diabetes, skull injuries, and auditory nerve tumors.
In such a situation, immediate hospitalization and intravenous administration of special medicines are required. Hearing restoration in this case is quite real.
The disease refers to non-inflammatory diseases of the inner ear. It is characterized by periodic bouts of dizziness, nausea or vomiting, tinnitus, imbalance, decreased hearing in one ear, and increased irritability from loud sounds. Pathology develops due to diseases of individual systems and organs (allergic conditions, hypertension, hypotension, atherosclerosis, vegetovascular dystonia, hormonal disorders, menopause, various toxicoses, and nicotine abuse). The disease manifests itself with a sharp disorder of vestibular function. the condition normalizes after the end of the attack, but hearing loss and tinnitus persist and gradually progress. With the disease, as a rule, one ear is affected.
Treatment consists in observing bed rest, a salt-free diet, and mustard foot baths are indicated. In order to stop an acute attack, Syabro powder is used (caffeine-sodium benzoate, platifillin hydrotartrate, sodium bromide). To prevent vomiting, the drugs "Aminazin", "Ephedrine", "Diphenhydramine" are administered intravenously. Between seizures, electrophoresis, a 5% solution of calcium chloride, special physical exercises, and acupuncture are prescribed. It is forbidden to take alcohol, smoke, be in the sun, swim in deep water. In a hospital, surgical methods are combined with ultrasound and cryotherapy.
Diffuse and limited external otitis media - diseases of the external ear of a person
Limited external otitis media is the boil of the external auditory canal. It develops exclusively in the membranous-cartilaginous area, where there are sebaceous glands and hair. Severe pain that radiates to the teeth, eye, neck - this is how this disease of the ears manifests in people. The treatment of the disease at the initial stage consists in the use of antibacterial drugs: Penicillin, Oxacillin, Ampioks. To introduce into the ear canal, turunda is used, which is impregnated with 2% boric alcohol. After the boil is opened - enter turunda, previously impregnated with a solution of penicillin in novocaine. Prescribe drugs "Analgin", "Acetylsalicylic acid." The surgical treatment is rarely used.
One of the types of diffuse purulent otitis media is otomycosis. With this disease, various types of yeast and mold develop on the walls of the external auditory canal. The reason for this phenomenon is prolonged hydration, previous purulent otitis media, uncontrolled use of hormonal drugs and antibiotics. Inflammation of the skin, pain, itching, moderate discharge of yellow, gray-green, dirty black color, depending on the type of fungus - this is how this disease of the ears manifests in people.
Treatment of otomycosis consists in a thorough toilet flushing, rinsing with a 3% solution of boric acid, washing off with antifungal agents (Kanesten, Nitrofungin), 10% silver nitrate solution. Therapy of the disease is quite long, complications often develop.
A variant of otomycosis is candidiasis of the ear, causing its yeast-like fungus of the genus Candida. The disease develops most often due to prolonged use of antibiotics. For the treatment of such a disease, antifungal antibiotics (Levorin, Nystatin, Nizoral, Griseofulvin) are orally used, and a 0.1% alcohol solution of Chinozol is used locally.
Otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear) often develops. The first stage of the disease is characterized by pain inside the ear, it can be pulsating, shooting, drilling. The body temperature rises sharply (above 38 ° C). After some time, perforation (breakthrough) of the eardrum occurs and pus follows. Body temperature normalizes. A common complication of acute otitis media is mastoiditis. With this disease, the mastoid process of the temporal bone becomes inflamed, in its thickness there are air-bearing cells that communicate with the cavity of the middle ear. With this pathology, the development of a purulent process is observed in the cells of the process, which can provoke the occurrence of intracranial complications (meningitis), since the sinuses and membranes of the brain are located anatomically close. Pressure on the appendix causes pain.
Mastoiditis can trigger the occurrence of meningitis, paralysis of the facial nerve, purulent sagging in the neck, abscesses in the behind-the-ear area.
Therapeutic measures are to ensure the outflow of pus from the middle ear cavity and the fight against purulent infection and inflammation. Surgical intervention is necessary in the presence of complications and inefficiency of conservative treatment. During surgery, an incision is made in the behind-the-ear area and the mastoid process is opened.
Otitis media is labyrinthitis. Such an inflammatory process can have an acute or chronic course. An infection can enter the inner ear in various ways. With purulent inflammation - through the middle ear, with meningitis - through the meninges, with various infections - through the blood. The following symptoms are characteristic of such an ailment: dizziness, nausea, imbalance, nystagmus (a condition in which the eyeball makes involuntary movements to the side).
When the first symptoms appear, urgent hospitalization is required. Depending on the form of the disease, therapy can be either conservative or surgical.
Antibiotics (Amoxiclav, Ceftriaxone) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Indomethacin, Diclofenac) are used for treatment.
This article described common human ear diseases (symptoms, causes, treatment principles). To prevent ailments of the organ of hearing, it is very important to observe hygiene and timely treat diseases of other organs that are near the ear (pharynx, sinuses). If diseases of the ear of people have nevertheless arisen, do not self-medicate - this can lead to serious consequences.