Water supply systems are called engineering communications, the components of which are devices designed for water intake from any source, its transportation and supply to the consumer. Such networks should be equipped and operated, of course, in compliance with certain standards. Water supply systems can be classified according to several criteria.
The main types of water supply systems on this basis are:
Structurally, such communications are divided into internal and external. The first type of water supply is equipped inside the building.
The classification of water supply systems laid inside houses is provided for as follows:
hot water supply;
cold water supply.
Equipment for heating liquid in hot water systems can be equipped both in separate boiler rooms and directly in the buildings themselves (boilers). Moreover, the classification of hot water systems can be as follows:
Internal networks are mounted on the street. At the same time, pipes are laid along trenches dug in advance. In order to avoid freezing in winter, they are usually also carefully insulated, for example, using mineral wool.
Household drinking systems
Thus, we can find out what classification of water supply systems can be carried out according to their purpose. But what kinds of household, industrial and fire networks themselves exist?
Household-drinking systems are used to supply drinking water in a centralized manner, which is also intended for domestic use. Installation requirements for such engineering systems are very stringent. The water supplied to settlements should, of course, meet all sanitary safety standards.
The classification of drinking water supply systems is provided for by the following criteria:
Also, such networks may vary in the way water is supplied to the consumer.
Varieties of household systems
In the first case, distinction is made between urban and urban water supply systems. Unlike industrial networks and firefighting, in terms of territorial coverage, drinking water communications can only be centralized. The only exceptions are networks of this kind, mounted outside the city. In some cases, for example, the owners of country houses of one village can equip artesian wells with a squeeze. This type of water supply belongs to the local group.
Sources for abstraction of water intended for supply to settlements may be:
superficial - lakes, rivers;
underground - wells, springs.
The water intake facilities in such systems use the following:
The first type of facilities for providing water to cities and towns is most often equipped. Mine wells for these purposes are used much less frequently. They can serve both for the reception of groundwater occurring at great depths, and groundwater with a low horizon power. Capturing chambers are generally equipped only when spring water is required for the facility.
GV and HV networks
Classification of cold and hot domestic water supply systems can also be carried out according to the method of supply. In this case, gravity and pressure communications are distinguished. To provide water to cities and towns, the latter type of networks is used. Gravity systems are mounted mainly only in private homes. In this case, the storage capacity is installed in the attic of the building.
Classification of industrial water supply systems
Like household systems, such utilities can be divided by type of source and type of water intake facilities. Water is supplied to industrial plants usually from surface sources. But sometimes wells can also be used for this purpose.
The specifics of some enterprises also necessitate the supply of workshops with water, the quality of which exceeds even drinking water. Therefore, in this case, special equipment is installed at the fence stations, designed for its most thorough cleaning. This is especially true when water is taken from surface sources.
By what other signs can they be subdivided
Classification of industrial water supply systems can be made by the method of using the liquid. In this regard, networks of factories are:
In the first type of systems, water is first supplied to the consumer for use. Then, if necessary, it is cleaned and dumped into the sewer. In serial networks, the water supply circulates through several workshops of the enterprise. Such a system is considered much more economical than direct-flow.
In circulating networks, water is reused at the enterprise. If it is heated during use, it is cooled in a special installation before a new cycle. In some cases, water can be further purified before reuse. When applying such a scheme, partial losses inevitably occur. Therefore, water in systems of this type has to be supplemented from time to time.
Classification of fire water supply systems
Such water pipes are usually equipped at fire hazardous enterprises. This can be, for example, cotton, oil depots, gas storage facilities, timber exchanges, etc. Such systems, in turn, can be:
In systems of the first type, the pressure necessary to extinguish a fire is created by mobile pumps. In this case, according to the standards, its indicator should be not less than 10 m. In high pressure networks, water is supplied directly to the fire site from hydrants along the branches. The pressure in such systems at the shafts is created by stationary pumps installed at the station.
Degree of reliability
On this basis, the classification of water supply systems provides for the following:
Category I systems. In this case, the regulations allow a reduction in water supply for household and drinking needs by no more than 30% of the design flow, and for production - according to the emergency schedule. At the same time, the feed can be reduced by a maximum of 3 days. Interruption of supply in such networks is allowed only to disable damaged equipment and enable backup. In any case, this period of time should not exceed 10 minutes.
Networks of the II category. In such communications, the feed reduction may be the same as in category I systems, but for a maximum of 10 days. In addition, a break in serving may be no more than 6 hours.
Category III systems. In this case, a reduction in feed is allowed for 15 days. At the same time, a break can last 24 hours.
In settlements with a population of N > 50 × 103, Category I systems are being developed. Cities and towns with 5 × 103 < N <50 × 103 belong to category II. In settlements with N <5 × 103, category III networks are carried out. Water supply elements, the damage of which can disrupt the water supply for fire fighting, according to the standards, always belong to category I.