How to make a CNC router with your own hands? Instruction manual

In order to perform a volumetric pattern on a wooden surface, factory milling machines are usually used. But to make such a mini-model yourself is quite possible, but first you need to familiarize yourself with the design. The basis can lie spare parts from the printer, which can be purchased for a penny.

The principle of the machine

do-it-yourself cnc router

If you decide to make a CNC router with your own hands, you should familiarize yourself with the features of the operation of such equipment. It is intended to form a pattern on a wooden surface. The design must have electronic and mechanical parts. Together, they allow you to automate the work.

For the manufacture of a desktop machine, you should know that the cutter is the cutting element. It is mounted in a spindle on the shaft of an electric motor. The whole structure is fixed to the bed. It can move along two coordinate axes. To fix the workpiece, a support table should be made. An electronic control unit must be connected to the stepping motors.

The motor and control unit provide carriage displacement relative to the part. This technology allows you to perform volumetric drawings on the surface. Mini-equipment works in a certain sequence. At the first stage, a program is written that will prepare a plan for moving the cutting part. For this, software systems for adaptation in home-made models are used.

The next step is to install the workpiece. The program is entered into the CNC. The equipment turns on, and then control over automatic actions is carried out. In order to ensure maximum automation, it is necessary to draw up a diagram and select components.

Before proceeding with the manufacture of a CNC router with your own hands, you need to familiarize yourself with the factory models. To obtain complex patterns and patterns, several types of cutters should be used. You can do some of them yourself, but for fine work you will need factory options.

Scheme of a homemade machine

do-it-yourself cnc router

The most difficult and important stage in the manufacture of the described equipment is the choice of circuit. It will depend on the degree of processing and the size of the workpiece. For domestic conditions, it is better to use a mini-machine, which will be installed on the table. A suitable option is a design of two carriages that will move along the coordinate axes.

Grounds may be polished metal bars. They are equipped with carriages. To create a transmission, you will need stepper motors and screws, which are complemented by rolling bearings. To automate the process, you need to consider the electronic part. It will consist of:

  • power supply unit;
  • controller
  • drivers.

Making a CNC router with your own hands, you should familiarize yourself with the design features of the device. For example, a power supply is required to supply power to the stepper motors and the controller chip. To do this, use the model 12V 3A. A controller is needed to command the engine. For the operation of the device, a simple circuit for a controller that will issue commands to three engines will suffice.

An element of regulation is also the driver. He will be responsible for the moving part. For management should use standard software systems. One of them is KCam, which has a flexible structure for adaptation to any controller. This complex has one important advantage, which is the ability to import files of common formats. Using the application, you can make a three-dimensional drawing of the workpiece for analysis.

In order for the stepper motors to work with a given input frequency, technical parameters will need to be entered into the control program. When compiling a program, separate blocks should be made. They are intended for:

  • drawing;
  • milling;
  • engraving;
  • drilling.

This will eliminate the idle movement of the cutter.

Selection of components

how to make a do-it-yourself cnc router manual

Before you do the CNC router yourself, you must select the components to assemble. A suitable option is the use of improvised tools. The basis of the machine can be plexiglass, aluminum or wood. For the proper functioning of the complex, the design of the calipers should be developed. Their movement should not be accompanied by fluctuations, which can cause inaccurate processing of the part.

Before assembly, components are checked for compatibility. As for the guides, they will be polished steel bars with a diameter of 12 mm. For the X axis, the length is equivalent to 200 mm, for Y - 90 mm. Before you start to do the manufacture of a CNC router with your own hands, you must choose a support. A suitable option is textolite. The dimensions of the site will be as follows: 25x100x45 mm.

The cutter mounting block can be made of PCB. Its configuration will depend on the tool available. The power supply is usually used by the factory. If you want to do this work yourself, you must be prepared for possible errors that will negatively affect the operation of the equipment.

If you want to assemble a CNC router from your printer with your own hands , you can use the 24v model for this. An excellent option is 5A. It is often compared with drive drives, the first of which has more impressive power. To solder the controller board, use capacitors and resistors in SMD packages. This will reduce the parameters, as well as make the interior more optimized.

Machine Instructions

do-it-yourself cnc router

Once all the components have been selected, you can begin to manufacture the device. All elements are pre-checked, which is especially true for their quality and parameters. To mount the nodes, special parts should be used. Their shape and configuration will depend on the chosen scheme.

Caliper guides are fixed on the side parts. Blocks at this stage are not yet installed on the base. Making a CNC router with your own hands, you must take care of grinding the calipers. To do this, they are moved along the guides until a smooth ride can be achieved. Bolts for attaching calipers are tightened.

On the basis of the equipment can be fixed. Couplings and spindles are strengthened. Traction motors are installed in the next step. They must be fixed to the screws of the couplings.

Features of the assembly

how to make a do-it-yourself cnc router

In a separate block, you must place the electronic part. This will reduce the risk of a malfunction. To install the equipment should choose a work surface. It should be smooth, because level adjustment will be impossible due to the lack of bolts. Then you can start the trial test.

First you need to set the simplest program. During operation, each cutter pass is verified. This will allow you to control the width and depth of processing. This recommendation is especially true for surround mode.

Alternative manufacturing

how to assemble a cnc router do-it-yourself

If you wondered how to make a CNC router with your own hands, you should definitely study the instructions. From it you can understand that the basis of the equipment can be a rectangular beam, which is fixed on the rails. The design is important to provide high rigidity. It is better if welding work is minimized. This is due to the fact that the seams can eventually become deformed and collapse under loads, and during operation, the bed device will vibrate, which will negatively affect the fastening elements. Ultimately, the settings will be lost.

When a CNC router is made by hand, home craftsmen usually learn the instructions. You too can follow suit. Having familiarized yourself with the technology of the work, you can find out that the fastening elements and the beam must be reinforced. For this, fastening is carried out with screws of certain diameters. This will eliminate backlash during operation, as well as deflection of the guides at high loads. The engraving machine is also assembled by the same principle .

The design must have a lifting tool. To do this, use a helical gear. To give the rotation to the lead screw, you need to use a toothed belt. A mandatory element of the equipment is the vertical axis. It can be made of aluminum plate. This unit is adjusted to the dimensions that were obtained at the design stage and entered in the drawing.

Before making a CNC router with your own hands, you can cast the vertical axis using a muffle plate. An excellent material will be aluminum. Two motors are mounted on the body, which will be located behind the axis. One of them will be responsible for horizontal, and the other for vertical movement. Rotation must be transmitted through belts. As soon as all the elements are in place, the machine must be installed on manual control and check its operation. If defects are identified, you can eliminate them on the spot.

More about stepper motors

do-it-yourself cnc router from printer

CNC units must be equipped with step-type electric motors. As such a motor, you can use the one that will be borrowed from the matrix printer. Usually pretty powerful elements are installed in them. Matrix aggregates have steel rods based on durable material. They can also be used in a makeshift machine.

If you were wondering how to make a CNC router with your own hands, it is recommended that you first consider the photo. They will allow you to understand how to act. The design may include three motors, which indicates the need for disassembly of two dot-matrix printers. It is better if the motors have five control wires, because the functionality of the machine will increase by several times. When choosing a stepper motor, you should find out the number of degrees per step and the operating voltage. You should also know the winding resistance. This will allow you to properly configure the software.

Shaft mount

If you decide to make a CNC router on a tree with your own hands, then you can use a stud or nut of the appropriate size as a drive. It is better to mount the shaft with a rubber cable with a thick winding. The same approach is relevant when mounting the engine to the stud. You can make clamps from the plug with the screw. For this, nylon is used. Assistants-tools in this case are a file and a drill.

Electronic software for the machine

The main element of the described equipment is software. You can use a home-made one, which will include the availability of all drivers for controllers. The software must have power units and stepper motors. If you are faced with the task of how to assemble a CNC router with your own hands, you should take care of the presence of an LPT port. There will also be a need for a work program that provides control and management of the necessary operating modes.

The CNC unit itself is connected to the equipment through the port and installed motors. When choosing software for the machine, you must bet on one that has already proven its stable operation and has functionality. Electronics will affect the quality and accuracy of operations. After installing it, download the programs and drivers.

Do-it-yourself CNC router for metal is performed using the same technology. However, he will cope only with thin blanks. Before operating the device, it is necessary to check the electronic support in operation and eliminate defects.

Instead of a conclusion: features of manufacturing a machine from drilling equipment

Before starting work on the manufacture of a CNC milling machine with your own hands, step by step it is necessary to consider the instructions. It may include the use of a particular circuit diagram, on the basis of which mini-equipment will work. As such, sometimes there is a drilling machine in which the working head is replaced by a milling one.

The most difficult thing is that you have to design a mechanism that provides movement in 3 planes. This mechanism is usually assembled on the basis of the same carriages from an idle printer.

Software control is connected to the device. It will be possible to work with such a device with blanks of sheet metal, wood or plastic. This is due to the fact that carriages from an old printer that provide movement of the cutting tool will not be able to guarantee a sufficient degree of rigidity.


All Articles