Why do acne appear? What is acne? The reason for the appearance, treatment with medicines and folk remedies

Skin in adolescence in humans is the most striking example of how acne appears and develops. What is this skin disease resulting from a malfunction of the glands producing an oily lubricant? Depending on the cause of such a violation, they can have different sources and development mechanisms.

How can I get rid of a small cosmetic defect on my own, and when the help of a qualified doctor is needed?

What are acne and non-inflammatory comedones

In the structure of the skin, the root of each hair is in a kind of “pouch” - a follicle or hair follicle. Around it are sebaceous glands that produce lubricant for the core and the surrounding skin. Fat, with which the body protects the dermis from dryness and attacks of adverse environmental factors, can cause a variety of skin defects, and even diseases.

If for one reason the mouth of the follicles or ducts become clogged with dust, dirt or cosmetics, then a dense congestion is formed - comedone. In the case when the sebaceous secretion accumulates from above, an open comedone forms, which resembles a white cork in a pore. Subsequently, it oxidizes, becoming black, and dots appear on the face or body with characteristic black heads. There are also internal (or subcutaneous) non-inflammatory acne. What are they and how are they formed? This process is identical to the outside, but it occurs in the deep layer of the skin: the ducts expand, and due to excessive accumulation of skin secretion, a closed comedone appears in the form of an internal wen. While there is no infection in the comedone, inflammation does not develop in it.

Classification of inflammatory acne (blackheads)

Open and closed comedones that do not have inflammatory reactions are the initial signs of acne. Proper facial and body care at home, regular visits to a cosmetologist help to quickly get rid of such skin defects, restore the health and beauty of the natural skin. If we continue to ignore the arising comedones on the forehead, chin, back, and other parts of the body, then in the clogged pores, as in containers, bacteria will actively multiply, as a result of which the follicle will become inflamed along with the surrounding tissues and suppuration will occur.

Under the pressure of this mass, the wall of the hair sac can burst, and thus a pimple occurs. Inflammatory acne in adults and adolescents is divided into papules, which are pink or red nodules, raised above the epidermis, in which there is no white content; pustules are acne with pus (in diameter from one to ten millimeters) that have a white head, they are surrounded by inflamed dermis. Changing the color of pustules means the attachment of a secondary infection. These spherical, cone-shaped or flat formations cannot be treated or crushed on their own, since there is a high probability of blood infection.

Such acne should be shown to a dermatologist, undergo an examination and follow its recommendations. Deep sore acne are inductive infiltrates with a bluish tinge above the surface of the skin. Such acne is the result of an advanced stage of acne, which can turn into a conglobate form when several of these blue flat spots merge into a painful focus.

Causes of Acne and Acne

There are many factors contributing to the formation of acne or provoking their appearance. A medical examination helps to identify the root cause of this process. In the first place in terms of prevalence, there is a surge in the production of hormones and their release into the bloodstream. Most often, it occurs in adolescents during the restructuring of the body, when intense puberty occurs, which makes acne on the face cause serious feelings. After overcoming the 25-year milestone, an acne in any person becomes an occasion to contact a dermatologist and determine its etiology: an imbalance in the hormonal sphere associated with pregnancy, endocrine diseases, the use of contraceptives or steroids; violations of the digestive tract; malnutrition (due to abuse of fast food, sweets, fatty foods); reduced immune defense; metabolic failures; genetic predisposition; gynecological problems; illiterate or uncontrolled face and body care; excessive enthusiasm for tanning beds or aggressive peelings; failures in the thermoregulation of the body (its hypothermia or overheating); demodecosis - a subcutaneous tick; the presence of bad habits. Violations of the sebaceous glands also occur under stress when the adrenal glands activate their work; from excessive skin hygiene, with frequent use of antibacterial agents that destroy the protective lipid film and open the infection to the pores; with hyperkeratosis - the accumulation of dead epidermal cells on the surface of the skin; with its injuries causing subsequent inflammation; when using drugs containing barbiturates, halogens or lithium, as well as when working with toxic drugs.

Acne localization

Problem areas with single acne or numerous rashes can form on the forehead and nose, in the lips and on the back.

The most susceptible area to the appearance of acne is the T-zone of the face, where a large number of sebaceous and sweat glands are concentrated. However, the cause of acne on the back does not differ at all from the causes of rashes on the face and other parts of the body. For professional athletes, bodybuilders or amateur athletes who are actively engaged in training, the back is often covered with sweat, which contributes to the accumulation of sebaceous secretion in the pores and the pollution of the ducts. This leads to inflammatory processes and the appearance of acne. Problem areas with acne on the forehead indicate gastrointestinal dysfunction associated with improper nutrition, intoxication of the body, constipation and other digestive disorders.

When acne on the nose, what happens in the body? These can be catarrhal internal formations, problems with the endocrine and digestive systems, the pancreas, weakened immune defenses. If papules appear on the patient’s tip, then doctors will examine the state of his cardiovascular system. The appearance of acne in the nose indicates a problem with blood circulation (the presence of anemia) or liver dysfunction. Papules on the lips, not associated with herpes, may indicate an inflammatory process in the mucous membrane, and hormonal acne under the lower lip may be the result of taking birth control pills. Examination of women with acne around the lips can reveal gynecological malfunctions.

Acne Stages

It is customary for dermatologists to distinguish the degree of acne skin lesion by the nature of the formations and their number: the first is several comedones (open and closed) on the forehead, nose and chin - no more than 5-6 formations on any part of the face.

Self-treatment is allowed if the development of the disease is suppressed and there are no traces; the second - a moderate manifestation of acne - differs from the previous one by the presence of closed acne, pustules and red eels, but not more than 11 papules and pustules. In this case, home treatment of minor defects is possible, but if they do not pass in the 20-21st day, then visiting a dermatologist is mandatory. The third degree of acne is considered a severe form of skin ailment, characterized by many different acne (up to four dozen), some of which are subject to inflammation and suppuration. Symptoms of post-acne (scars, spots and scars) are present in the focus. They increase uncontrollably, capturing neighboring areas of the skin, which causes acne on the face cause moral suffering. It is impossible to crush such acne, it is impossible to treat it without the help of a professional either, since these factors threaten the appearance of ugly scars on the surface of the face or blood poisoning during inept handling. The fourth degree of acne is the presence of numerous foci with blackheads of various shades, sizes, dark spots and large scars. In the places of lesions, conglomerates from several acne, cysts, nodes can occur, which, with slight friction, begin to fester and bleed. Such complex acne (acne, acne) treatment should be received without delay, a visit to a dermatologist in this case should not be postponed, since it is possible to "earn" dangerous consequences for the health and beauty of the skin.

In adolescents

Teenagers are especially sensitive to their appearance, so arising unaesthetic acne spoil their mood and cause a lot of trouble. As early as 12-15 years, when puberty occurs, it is necessary to carefully care for the skin. In the early stages of acne, the active work of the sebaceous glands makes the skin look unaesthetic. Oily spots, inflammations, acne and acne are the result of raging hormones, the secretion of which is normal by the age of 25, and then the hormonal acne will pass by itself.

But in order to get beautiful skin without waiting for the coveted time, it is necessary to wash your face in the morning without using soap, and in the evening, before going to bed, you can use it or take a cleanser with a moisturizing effect if your skin is combined. Every 7-10 days (if there are no inflammations or abscesses) it is necessary to carry out a peeling procedure using a scrub (ground coffee powder (or its sleeping precipitate), sea salt, Hercules, soda). You can also use cosmetic scrubs from the store, suitable for the type of skin. You can steam pores only if there is no inflammation on the surface of the epidermis.


Why can not push acne on the face of adults and adolescents? If the skin is damaged, an infection can be caused, which will lead to the formation of unaesthetic scars. Internal extrusion of acne located in the deeper layers of the dermis can expel the contents of the eel when squeezed inward, causing complications in the form of even more inflammation or thickening on the skin with blockage of many sebaceous glands, and also lead to blood poisoning. An unripe painful pimple can turn into a cold cyst as a result of mechanical action - a seal that provokes a tumor in the skin tissue.

Considering the problem of why acne on the face cannot be squeezed, experts warn that the close arrangement of blood vessels with pressure can contribute to blockage of blood flow, creating an additional purulent focus. In areas with thin and delicate dermis (around the eyes, lips, temples), scars are especially often formed. You can not touch the so-called triangle of death with closely located blood vessels - the area from the nose to the chin, including nasolabial folds and the area around the mouth.

How to get rid of acne in adolescence: a comprehensive treatment

Acne in young people is not uncommon. To deal with acne, you need to start with a visit to a dermatologist. He will conduct a full examination and identify the main reason due to which skin defects appear. Very often, along with prescribing medications, the doctor recommends a healthy diet that reduces the amount of harmful food additives (preservatives, dyes, emulsifiers, stabilizers, chemicals), and also eliminates the use of fast food, carbonated drinks, fatty, spicy, confectionery and other harmful products . Replace them with fermented milk drinks and cottage cheese, cereals, vegetables and fruits, honey (if there is no allergy), lean meat and fish, and other dietary dishes. To restore skin hydration, young people a day need to drink at least one and a half liters of pure water (without gas), a little green or herbal tea. All this will help to quickly get rid of such a scourge as teenage acne.

What are the latter are, we have already said, but not everyone knows that sometimes they arise against the background of stresses, and then the doctor recommends the use of sedative drugs or dietary supplements. In addition, a dermatologist can prescribe home or professional skin care in accordance with the aesthetic task. If the process is not started, then adolescents using non-comedogenic cosmetics without alcohol compounds, sunscreens, optimal nutrition and skin hydration are enough for adolescents. In addition to a dietary supplement - brewer's yeast with zinc (or sulfur) - the doctor can prescribe antiseptics to care for the outer layer of the skin, adsorbents that improve metabolic processes in the body and cleanse it of toxins from the inside, antibiotics that fight pathological organisms and hormones if There is a need for them. At the same time, the doctor prescribes vitamin-mineral complexes, soothing capsules. The independent use of pharmacy drugs on the advice of friends and girlfriends, as a rule, does not lead to a complete cure for acne. A visit to a cosmetologist should also be coordinated with a doctor, when a teenager will need professional care for the dermis and there will be no foci with inflammation on the skin.

Medication for Acne

Despite the availability of many acne and acne medicines, a specialist should prescribe them! Self-medication does not eliminate the cause of the disease and leads to the appearance of an increasing number of foci, complicating the further struggle with it. This worsens the condition of the skin. From medications, the doctor can prescribe ointments (retinoic - “Ayrol”, “Retinol A” or salicylic), “Chatterbox” - suspension with antibiotics and zinc or sulfur, “Zinerit” lotion with erythromycin, “Azelik-Gel” or “Skinoren” cream ”Based on azelaic acid,“ Baziron AS ”(benzoyl peroxide),“ Differin ”(“ Adapalen ”or“ Klenzit ”) and“ Effezel ”,“ Klindovit ”(analogue of“ Dalacin ”),“ Curiosin ”or“ Regecin ”with the active substance of zinc is hyaluronate. Against the background of acne treatment, a dermatocosmetologist can recommend hardware procedures: deep face cleansing with ultrasound or vacuum, chemical peeling, laser resurfacing, cryo- or mesotherapy, various types of dermabrasion, ozone-oxygen treatment, ELOS-therapy and many other methods of getting rid of defects skin caused by acne.

Acne and blackhead mask

If there are no inflammatory processes on the skin, and the problem area occupies no more than 25% of the face surface, then acne and black spots can be neutralized using self-made cosmetics from clay, egg white, vegetables (cucumbers, pumpkins or carrots), from baking soda, oatmeal or oat flakes, algae powder (fucus or kelp). The mask from acne and black spots from clay cleanses and whitens the skin, tightens pores, normalizes the secretion of sebum, exfoliates dead skin cells, and has an anti-inflammatory effect. Tea tree oil works as a powerful antiseptic, has an antibacterial effect on the skin. It can be applied both in its pure form (if there is no allergy) or dripped into any mask you like. Protein-lemon composition perfectly cleanses oily, problem skin, eliminates comedones, tightens pores, fights against acne, dries acne and inflammation, brightens excessively pigmented areas. To prepare the product, squeeze the lemon juice - 1 teaspoon - and mix it with one egg white, whisking in a mixer at a slow speed. The prepared mass is applied in several layers as it is dried. After repeating the procedure 3-4 times, let the layers dry to the last. At the end of the session, wash off the rest of the product from the face with warm water and apply a moisturizer. Soda mass with cucumber is prepared based on: for 1 vegetable grated on a grater - 0.5 tsp. drinking soda. The mixture is applied immediately after preparation.

A simple and effective mask with activated carbon and gelatin: a recipe

The charcoal mask film is incredibly popular among women due to its ability to give the skin a new life.

The stunning effect of a clean, fresh face can be obtained with a few recipes. To increase the effectiveness of the procedure (if there is no inflammation and purulent acne on the skin), it is necessary to steam the face. For the mixture you will need 1 tablet of activated carbon, 1 tsp. gelatin powder and a tablespoon of milk (it can be replaced with water or the juice of your favorite fruit (vegetable). Grind the charcoal and combine it with gelatin, then pour in cold milk or other liquid and put in the microwave for 15 seconds. Warm the mixture with a brush or cotton pad on direction from the chin up in several layers. You can’t talk during the procedure. the resulting film must be carefully picked up from the bottom of the chin and pull it up. On the film from the inside, you can see comedones removed from the pores. Here is a mask with activated carbon and gelatin. The recipe can be varied depending on the purpose and imagination, adding kefir and whey, honey and berry juice, aromatic oils and clay (blue or green), pink water and aloe juice.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/A10358/

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