In the process of arranging the sewage system, many owners prefer to install a septic tank for a private house with their own hands. The layout of the drainage system is relatively simple. However, there are a number of nuances that you need to know. Next, we will figure out how to make a septic tank for a private house with your own hands.
A septic tank for a private house is one or more containers in which sewage is treated. A home-made system, of course, will cost several times cheaper than installing a finished structure by a manufacturer or a company directly involved in installation. The owner of suburban real estate can install a storage hermetic tank. A septic tank for a private house can be equipped with a filter field, in which a full treatment of domestic wastes will be carried out with their subsequent absorption by the soil.
In accordance with the previous understanding, a septic tank for a private house is a storage tank for storing drains and their subsequent removal with the help of a cesspool machine. The device of modern systems allows you to clean sewer water, lowering them into the soil, without harm to the environment. You can make a container for drains yourself from various materials. In particular, many install a septic tank for a private house with their own hands from the wheels (a photo of such a system is presented in the article).
Essence of the work
To build a septic tank for a private house with your own hands, you need to know the principle of its action. What is the essence of the systems? There is one or more containers. Sewers get into them from the house. After this, a certain amount of insoluble compounds, settling to the bottom, undergoes fermentation. Gradually, the substances dissolve in water. The clarified settled water enters the aeration field for filtration. Cleaning is done through the ground. In the process, anaerobic destruction occurs due to the activity of bacteria, which are found in large quantities in the upper soil layer. Such filtering allows you to purify about 90-95% of all domestic wastewater. This design is considered the simplest. It is not difficult to make such a septic tank for a private house with your own hands. The main task in the design is the accurate calculation of the parameters of the future installation. Particular care should be taken in addressing the issue of system performance. It will largely depend on the volume that the capacity has.
When making a septic tank for a private house with your own hands without pumping, it is necessary to take into account the average volume of effluents that form during the life of the inhabitants of the dwelling for 3 days. There is no need to consider stations for deep cleaning, in which the calculation is made for a day. To obtain volume, width, depth and other parameters, average data should be used. In particular, a person leaves about 200 liters of wastewater per day. This amount includes liquid waste from the kitchen, toilet, bathroom. The result is approximately 200 liters. As mentioned above, the calculation is made for three days: 200 x 3 = 600 liters. This should be approximately the amount of installation per person. Next, the value is multiplied by the number of residents. If the value is not integer, then it is better to round it up. You can estimate the volume of effluents by the meter.
Before constructing a septic tank for a private house with your own hands from wheels or other material, it is advisable to draw a drawing. As a basis, you can take a simple design. Subsequently, with small amendments, you can make a septic tank for a private house with your own hands, taking into account the parameters for a particular family. The design includes the camera itself. You can make a septic tank for a private house with your own hands from concrete rings or Eurocubes. The capacity may also be a pit, the walls of which are lined with any material. In particular, some owners build a septic tank for a private house with their own hands from brick. The design should also include an aeration field. Here the effluent will be filtered. The installation may include two or three cameras. The latter option has established itself as the most effective solution to the issue of arranging the sewer system.
It must comply with existing safety requirements, be strong, durable, reliable. The material must effectively cope with the tasks. You can make a septic tank for a private house with your own hands from waste containers. Also, the construction uses a variety of building materials.
How to equip a septic tank for a private house with your own hands from the rings?
The depth of the pit in this case, as a rule, is not more than four meters. This is especially important if the septic tank is equipped with your own hands for a private house with a high level of groundwater. The design should be at the optimum depth. For the construction, 4-5 concrete rings of a standard size will be required. Their height is a little more than a meter. The diameter of the rings can be different - within 700-2000 mm. When calculating the future design, the parameters of the elements are taken into account. Each ring has a weight of 600 kilograms or more. Installation may require a crane. You can cope with the work without the involvement of technology. Rolling the rings alone, however, is problematic. In any case, additional hands will be required. The first ring is installed on the end in the area where the septic tank will be located, and they begin to dig. Work should be done very carefully. It’s better to have at least one more person nearby.
After the top end is level with the ground, a second ring is installed. Digging the pit continues. So that the rings do not disperse, they are connected with reinforcement. It is welded from the inside to the elements. Special holding brackets can also be provided. They will prevent the displacement of elements. After the pit is dug, all the seams between the rings are sealed with cement mortar. Reliable protection against their entry into the well should be provided. The bottom is cemented and covered with waterproofing material. It is also laid along the walls of the tank. You can leave one well. It will be cumulative capacity. Periodically, it will be necessary to pump out drains from it. You can complicate the design and equip the conclusions on the filtration field.
This design is simpler than described above. Vat containers today can be easily purchased in specialized stores. Eurocup is a large airtight container. It is excellent for septic tanks. It only needs to be done with ventilation outlets for the future treatment plant. When creating a two-chamber septic tank, it is also necessary to equip overflows. After this, the tanks are connected with fittings and installed in a previously dug pit. Such home-made installations must be periodically cleaned of accumulated sediment. Full filtration will be carried out in case of additional withdrawal of clarified runoff to the aeration field.
When arranging the system, it is important to accurately maintain the distance between the drainage field, the tank and other objects. As mentioned above, it is necessary to take into account the level and movement of groundwater in the presence of a well or well in the area. The tank itself can be located near the building. Provided that the septic tank is tight, it is enough to maintain a distance of 5 meters. If a system with an aeration field will be installed, then more stringent requirements must be observed. In particular, a septic tank is installed no closer than 30 meters from an open reservoir, 50 - from a source of water supply. Also, the container should be located as far as possible from the residential building itself in order to avoid destruction of the foundation under the influence of high humidity from the soil. In general, septic tanks are positioned so as to minimize the cost of laying pipes and reduce the likelihood of violation of established standards during operation.
Usually it comes down to a complex of earthworks. In particular, digging of trenches and pits is carried out. In this case, one should take into account the peculiarities of the soil, its qualitative characteristics, and the level of groundwater. All these points in the future can have a big impact on the quality of wastewater treatment. For example, if a septic tank is being built with your own hands for a private house with a high level of groundwater, then it will only act as a storage tank. Arrangement of the aeration field in this case is ineffective, unless an additional elevation is made. It will act as a filter layer. It should be noted that backfill will be effective in arranging a septic tank in clay. The only thing is that you will need to take care of the cumulative intermediate well and pump. Backfill is made of gravel and sand. The layer height is 500-1000 mm (the larger the better). Inside it drainage pipes are laid. Soil is laid on top of the field. Such a "mountain" can become not only an aeration field, but also an element of the landscape. On this site, you can plant decorative plants. This option is considered optimal when arranging a septic tank in marshland.
Homemade installation cost
On average, the total price of materials used in the construction of the system is much lower than that of finished septic tanks from the manufacturer. For example, a Eurocube can be purchased for 3000 rubles / pc, a reinforced concrete ring (depending on size) - for 1000-3000 rubles / pc. Calculation of the cost of hydro and thermal insulation material is carried out separately.
Septic tank without pumping
Such an installation will require not so much labor and material costs. Costs will be even less than that of a sealed container. For the construction of a septic tank without pumping, a two-chamber tank with a draining bottom and strong walls is required. At the first stage, a foundation pit is prepared. After it is dug, you need to equip the formwork inside the perimeter. For her, inch boards are used. Unedged or second-hand wood can be used, since it will be needed only for the time of pouring the sand-cement mortar. On the marked line dividing the chambers, double-sided formwork should be installed. In the resulting partition, a cast-iron or plastic tee is installed. Its diameter is 100 mm. The top edge of the tee should be 20-50 mm lower than the bottom edge of the drain pipe. During the construction it is necessary to take into account that the partition should be buried to separate the drainage area 1 and 2 of the chamber. The depth the greater, the better the properties of the soil. Otherwise, it will turn out just a single-chamber installation with a partition inside. Separation of the drainage area can be done by pre-digging a trench, the depth of which is 20-30 cm. You can also put double sheets of wave or flat slate in front of the partition.
It is carried out in layers. From below, formwork is made in 3-4 boards and the solution is poured. It should be rammed with a wooden handle, thus eliminating the voids in the mass. Each line of formwork is poured around the perimeter. To reduce the consumption of the mixture, a stone of various sizes is added to it. The walls of the septic tank must be strong. Next, several boards are added and poured again. The mixture is also rammed by the handle. If the boards for formwork are few, then a couple of days after pouring, they are rearranged higher and continue to work.
A ditch is dug between the septic tank and the house. A guide box for a drain pipe is installed in it. For its manufacture, a board with a thickness of 40-50 mm is taken. When installing the box should form a "window" in which the pipe will fit. The place of its installation can be in any convenient section of the wall in the first chamber - it will not necessarily be in the center. After that, a sand-cement mortar is poured between the soil and the formwork.