Logistics is one of the important components of the business environment, a fairly common phenomenon. Therefore, it has a number of varieties and subcategories. In the article we will get acquainted in detail with one of them - this is customs logistics. We give a definition of this direction, its features, the appropriateness of application.
What it is?
Customs logistics - a specific list of activities that are aimed at resolving issues related to the organization of international deliveries of products and various goods. This concept includes preparing documentation, conducting flights, checking cargo for compliance with declarations, etc.
Customs logistics is designed to solve complex problems and tasks, is designed to make the export and import of goods the most optimal and less costly for the manufacturer, distributor, carrier.
Is there a connection with the basic concept? Yes, logistics and customs clearance are close to the fact that both here and there, standard logistic working methods are used. Something like this: optimization of resources, schemes - both material (products, transport), and intangible (human resources, useful information).
That is, logistics in customs makes it possible to optimize processes that are in any way connected with international cargo transportation.
the main goal
What is the main purpose of applying this area of logistics? It becomes clear on the basis of the foregoing - optimization and adaptation of a variety of product delivery schemes.
In transport and customs logistics, non-standard methods are used to achieve this goal. Ways to solve problems, first of all, are based on professionalism, level of training and rich experience of logistic specialists working in this direction.
It is important to note that the work of a customs broker in logistics is expensive. But such a high price is justified here. Since the results obtained with the successful organization of international transport, usually exceed all customer expectations.
The following applies to customs logistics:
- Making an expert assessment of the goods required to fill out customs declarations.
- Turnkey customs clearance (that is, with the inclusion of delivery).
- Assistance in filling out such customs declarations.
- Certification, licensing, obtaining documents for transported goods and products.
- Customs clearance of the entire mass of goods - both for import and export.
- Advice on issues of domestic and foreign customs legislation.
- Delivery of a variety of goods from anywhere on the map using sea, air, road or rail.
- After customs escort of cargo.
- Provision of services for responsible storage of goods.
- Many other types of services that are directly or indirectly related to the organization of international transport of goods.
Students in colleges of customs and logistics can name similar special cases:
- Registration of technical passports for various vehicles.
- Registration of an individual by TVET.
- Customs clearance of excisable goods.
- Assistance in certification and execution of any other necessary permits when processing goods.
When is it appropriate?
Logistics and customs clearance are closely related. We list the main cases in which it would be advisable to turn to the services of a specialist in this industry:
- The client has reason to bring his own products to the international market.
- The client has a desire to use raw materials or products of foreign origin for their activities.
- One of the tasks facing the client is to become a distributor or wholesale purchaser of any goods of foreign origin.
- Other cases when the client needs to establish effective regular channels for the import and export of raw materials or finished goods.
Features of the activity
The object-subject field of customs logistics (LLC, IP and other legal forms of organizations in this industry) is the foreign trade flows of products during the crossing of customs borders and customs clearance. The purpose of the activity in this area is an effective logistics organization of all movements of goods relevant to customs, as well as their acceleration.
In this case, the customs logistics has several functions:
- Financial and economic.
- Informational and analytical.
It is important to note that in this area all of the above functions do not operate separately, but are integrated.
The customs type of logistics is relevant in relation to foreign trade, financial, information flows, which are also integrated into a single stream. The purpose of logistics in the activities of customs authorities is to control it. This is the duty of the customs service, customs posts and individual workers. They should carry it out directly when crossing this integrated stream of customs state borders.
Imagine specific customs operations carried out by transport and logistics companies:
- The relationship of production activities of customers with crossing customs borders. This requires both knowledge of customs requirements and their compliance.
- The next task in this direction is interaction with customs authorities.
- Large-scale transport and logistics companies incorporate customs licensed warehouses and posts.
- Acting as a customs carrier and broker.
Customs logistics is not only the activity of purely transport and logistics organizations. They function in collaboration with the following specialists, companies and bodies:
- Clients: exporters and importers.
- Freight forwarders.
- Enterprises providing complexes.
- Freight agents.
- Logistic and transport intermediaries.
- Insurance companies.
- Credit and banking organizers.
The main subjects here are customs brokers and carriers.
The basis of the customs functions of logistics is the logistics organization of the processes of customs processing of goods. It combines the implementation processes of various customs regimes that are associated with physical movements across the customs border of foreign trade products and raw materials.
In this case, logistics ensures the coherence of material, financial, information flows in customs activities, optimal technologies for moving various goods across the customs borders, and allows accelerating these processes.
A great role here is given to the development of standard, traditional logistic requirements for participants in non-economic cooperation and customs authorities.
In addition to standard economic techniques, intangible factors are also used in this area. In particular, this is information and human resources. For example:
- Constant monitoring of compliance with the requirements of domestic legislation in the field of customs regulation.
- The ability to correctly classify goods for various customs purposes.
- Knowledge of changes, editions of all regulatory documents necessary for the organization of foreign economic cooperation.
- Orientation in the intricacies of declaring, etc.
Important business concepts
In their work, the centers of logistics and customs operate with the following concepts:
- Customs control. This is a set of measures that the customs authorities carry out to ensure compliance with domestic customs legislation (in our country, the Customs Code of the Russian Federation).
- Customs clearance. The totality of customs operations and procedures performed by relevant government agencies in the prescribed manner. For customs purposes, they determine the status of products and vehicles moving across the state border.
- Border subjects of the Russian Federation. This is the name of the state legal Russian entities with open checkpoints on land and sea borders.
- Customs infrastructure. This is the name of administrative buildings, information structures, communication and data transfer systems, technical stationary means providing customs control, research institutions and laboratories, higher and secondary educational professional organizations, computer centers, customs and temporary storage warehouses, established specifically by customs authorities.
- Transport and logistics structure. A complex of various logistics and transport facilities that are designed to move goods and provide related services. Highways, power lines, bridges, warehouses, terminals, transport and logistics complexes, etc. are considered such infrastructure.
The basis of transport and logistics flows are foreign trade. First of all, they differ in cross-border nature. They are divided into input (imported goods) and output (products, raw materials for export).
Foreign trade flows complement information. They are divided into three groups. Weekend - from customs to the central government, input - from central government to customs, accompanying - documentation for raw materials.
The following flows that are the subject of customs logistics are financial. There are two categories. The day off is the collection and subsequent transfer of state duties to the budget. Input - financing of the customs system by the state.
The customs representative (broker) is a Russian legal entity, which was included in the Register of Customs Brokers. This definition is from Art. 139-140 of the Customs Code of the Russian Federation. Accordingly, a government agency cannot act as a customs broker.
This representative on behalf of the declarant (or other interested persons on their behalf) is authorized to perform various customs operations. He may also limit his area of activity to customs operations for certain types of products. Or in relation to goods that are transported across the border by certain transport. It is possible to limit the scope of your work to specific regions.
The relations of customs brokers with declarants and other interested parties should be built on a contractual basis. The refusal of the customs representative to provide the service if such an opportunity exists is not allowed.
A customs carrier is an enterprise transporting goods between customs structures without taking measures to guarantee such delivery to the destination.
Such a carrier is a Russian legal entity, which was included in the Register of customs carriers of the Russian Federation. He moves goods under customs control. It relies in its activities only on the conditions and cases specified in Art. 93 of the Customs Code.
It may limit the scope of its activities to a specific region in which one or more customs authorities operate. Business relations of carriers are formed on the basis of an agreement with forwarders or senders. Refusal to conclude a contract with a carrier if possible to make delivery is not allowed.
Customs logistics is one of the important areas of logistics in general. We know what it is, what its functions, varieties, expediency are. The main figures here are brokers and carriers. In their activities, they rely on the provisions of the Customs Code.