For heating, water heating is most often used. For a private home, this is ideal. Such systems are characterized by enviable simplicity, comparative low cost and very high efficiency. And if you have experience working with tools, nothing will prevent you from independently creating such a heating system. Our review will tell you how to make water heating of a private house with your own hands, and we will also give the schemes as a good example.
You will also learn about the types of systems used in the designs of radiators and materials. Separately, liquid circulation systems, methods for installing radiators and pipes will be considered. And most importantly, we will pay attention to the choice of heating boilers. After our brief review, you will draw the appropriate conclusions and will be able to create a simple but effective liquid heating system.
Types of water systems
There are several types of water heating designs that are used in private homes. We mean only standard systems - using radiators, underfloor heating and skirting boards. Moreover, it is possible to combine several types at once to ensure the most efficient heating of the premises. For example, in the living rooms and bedrooms, the installation of conventional radiators is allowed, but in the bathroom, toilet, kitchen, you can mount the underfloor heating system.
The fact is that often in these rooms the floor is made of tiles. And he is cold by himself. And to improve comfort, it is necessary to heat the tiles from the inside. And now let's take a closer look at all the features of various types of heating systems with a liquid coolant.
Water heating of a private house without a pump will work quite effectively if you make the correct slope of the pipes. The radiator system is an ageless classic. The principle of operation is to transfer heat from the carrier (liquid) through radiators that are installed in the rooms. Heating systems of this type are installed almost everywhere - in industrial, residential, utility and even administrative premises. Installation is quite easy and simple, since you only need to install the pipes and connect radiators to them.
Even 20-30 years ago, radiators were made exclusively of cast iron. But they have a very large mass - so the installation is complicated, you need to additionally install the mounts. Today aluminum radiators are popular. They are relatively cheap, hardy, and most importantly - light. When planning water heating of a private house with your own hands, it is recommended to use just such radiators.
Advantages and disadvantages of the radiator system
The main advantage of the radiator system is that it can be installed without pouring a concrete screed. It is only necessary to put the boiler, from it to stretch the pipes to which the radiators are connected. With the help of them, the most efficient heating of the room’s space occurs, and most importantly, they in no way spoil the interior design. The aluminum radiator fits into any decoration.
The system has no drawbacks as such. Of course, we can distinguish the service life - it is not very long, since aluminum tends to crumble under the influence of an aggressive environment. But if you use not running water, but antifreeze as the heat carrier, then this problem will eliminate itself.
Underfloor heating system
But water heating systems in a private house can be built not only through the use of radiators. You can mount a warm floor. Moreover, it can work both in tandem with the radiator system, and separately from it. If you plan to use the warm floor as an independent system, then laying pipes for the radiator makes no sense. But it is best to use them as an addition to the radiator - the house will be much warmer. Feet will feel it especially well. It is recommended to make a warm floor if there are small children in the house.
Typically, such systems are installed in toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens. In other words, in those rooms in which tiles are laid. However, if desired, a warm floor can be installed throughout the house - it will be appropriate in any room. Even in the bedroom - just imagine how nice it is, waking up early in the morning, getting up on the warm floor, and not on the cold.
It should be noted that in warm floor systems the temperature does not exceed 55 ° C. Therefore, without much work, it is possible to produce a completely economical heating system. But you just have to make concrete screeds, drill holes in the walls, door frames. Therefore, underfloor heating systems are usually installed during the construction phase of a house. However, if you are doing major repairs, this can also be done.
The operation of all radiator-type systems is based on the laws of physics. In particular, on the effect of convection - hot air from the radiator rises, and cold air falls. In this case, more or less uniform heating of the air occurs. Of course, the air will be the coldest at the floor. And it is not very nice. Many immediately visit the idea of installing water heating of a private house using pipes laid under the floor. This is the so-called underfloor heating system. But you can get out of this situation.
The baseboard floor heating includes small radiators made of aluminum or brass. They are supplied with coolant from the main heating system using thin tubes. The system also has drain cranes, thanks to which you can get rid of excess air. The whole structure fits into a plastic skirting board. Air enters the body and warms the walls that are on top. In this case, there is a complete absence of drafts that blow on the floor.
The main advantage of the skirting heating system is that it can be mounted at any time, even after the final construction of the house and decoration. But the installation cost is quite high, as well as a huge number of requirements for the installation of skirting boards and additional parts.
Type of coolant circulation
We examined the main types of heating systems. If you look at the pros and cons of each type, you can conclude - it is best to choose a floor heating system and radiator heating. But there is still one separation of all systems - they can work both under pressure and without it. Hereafter, all the features of such structures will be considered.
Simply put, this type of coolant circulation depends on one parameter - on the slope of the pipes. When designing a system, this parameter must be taken into account. But one feature should be noted - the use of this type of circulation is justified only when it is necessary to heat a small house. Water moves through pipes under the influence of gravitational forces, as well as due to convection - hot liquid rises up, and cold liquid drops down. And the boiler is at the bottom of the system, where the water has the lowest temperature.
The scheme of work is approximately the following:
- Water enters the boiler radiator.
- Next, the water warms up from a gas nozzle or other heat source.
- Hot water tends to rise upward, it is superseded by cold.
- Hot water flows through pipes to the radiators.
- In radiators, the liquid cools and goes into the "return" - the lower pipe.
- Then the liquid again goes to the boiler radiator and the whole cycle is repeated.
When designing heating systems with natural circulation , it is necessary to make a slope - with it, the coolant will flow through the pipes faster. You also need to consider one feature - horizontal sections should not exceed 30 meters. In other words, there should be a distance of less than 30 m between the boiler and the most recent radiator (read through pipes, not directly).
It is possible to make water heating in a private house on wood without problems. Boilers of long burning are even sold for such fuel - a few logs will be enough for you for a day, or even more. And when manufacturing a system with natural circulation, you will receive significant savings, since you do not need to purchase additional equipment (for example, pumps). And most importantly, the system is silent. The disadvantage is that you need to make the most straight route (after all, the water pressure in the pipes is small. In addition, you will need to install pipes with a large diameter.
Forced coolant circulation
In such a system there is a circulation pump - it provides effective movement of the coolant through the pipes. Therefore, if you plan to install a forced system, you can completely forget about biases. But this design is complex - there are not only batteries and pipes, but also a pump. With increasing pressure in the heating system, you can get such advantages:
- A large number of bends are allowed.
- You can heat a large house - even several floors.
- It is allowed to apply at installation of a pipe of small diameter.
Typically, such structures are made closed - this avoids air entering the system. After all, you need to remember that oxygen is the cause of corrosion on the inner surface of the metal. It is also allowed to install an expansion tank of a closed design. It does not need to be mounted at high altitude.
Among the shortcomings of such a system, it is possible to single out that it is necessary to purchase an additional set of equipment. This is very affordable, the cost of work increases, and much more. But you can very well save on materials - get plastic pipes, they cost much cheaper than metal ones. And even with them, heating the rooms will be effective.
Single pipe heating system
When designing the heating of a private house with a furnace with a water circuit, it is important to consider one more feature. There are single and double pipe systems. The former are used, as a rule, in private houses of a small area. If the house is large, it is best to use a two-pipe system. But what is the best way to lay pipes and connect radiators? If the house has no more than 2-3 rooms, then you can save a little on materials - make a one-pipe system.
In this case, the water will flow through the radiators, reach the last one and return to the boiler by the "return". Heating batteries are connected from below. But there is a drawback to such a scheme - the farthest rooms will not warm up well, since the water temperature at the end of the path is minimal. So that the coolant does not cool down too much, it is possible to install circulation pumps and bypasses (or jumpers) on each battery.
Double pipe system
This design is more perfect - after all, a solid pipe is laid to the most distant radiator. And after it, bends are made to each of the intermediate radiators. After the water passes through the radiator, it falls into the "return". This scheme provides the most uniform heating of rooms. But there is a drawback to this type of system - it is quite difficult to mount it. If you have a question about which system to implement, it is better to dwell on a two-pipe system. After all, with its help it is possible to ensure uniform heating of all radiators (and, of course, pipes).
Water boiler selection
You can even use a wood stove for a private house with water heating. But why stock up on wood if there is gas? In addition, the wood stove must be constantly monitored to keep the temperature in the house at the proper level. Wood stoves are used, as a rule, if the landlord wants to give his home a little exclusivity. The fireplace installed in the hall will look very nice and warm the household on cold winter evenings.
But this is pampering, because gas water heating in private homes has become widespread. In them, the liquid warms up due to gas. Fire heats the radiator, which is filled with liquid. It fits a few liters. The heated liquid tends upward (under the influence of convection or pressure created by the pump).
Liquid and electric boilers
But how to make water heating in a private house if there is no gas? Then you can use electric boilers or boilers of long burning. But there will be a lot of electricity to “eat” the boiler. Diesel or stove boilers are also available. They are quite effective, but the smell of oil is unlikely to erode from the house.
Therefore, it is better to dwell on this option - use an electric boiler. When heating a small house, the costs will be minimal. And if you make a forced circulation of the coolant, it will reduce the cost of electricity. Electric water heating can be used in private homes without gas.