Any owner of a suburban or suburban area knows that construction and repair work are a continuous process throughout life. Moreover, wood in this work occupies, if not the main, then certainly the auxiliary value. It is used everywhere and most often in processed form. Therefore, a home sawmill, made with your own hands, is a good help in chores. And the cost of self-made equipment will be much less than factory structures, which is an important fact for a careful owner.
Types of sawmills
Depending on the design features of the cutting tool, do-it-yourself sawmills made at home can be divided into three types:
- Disk sawmills are most often found among homemade structures. They gained their popularity due to the simplicity of assembly and wide versatility in work. The basis of such a sawmill, made with one's own hands, is a circular saw, which is rotated by an electric or gasoline engine.
- Tape power-saw benches are most often used in the preparation of various wood materials in large volumes at industrial enterprises. Almost all do-it-yourself tape sawmills in home workshops are based on drawings and factory-made designs. The advantage of such equipment is the possibility of quick and high-quality sawing of large logs weighing up to three hundred kilograms.
- Busbar constructions, the main task of which is the longitudinal sawing of wood into boards, as well as the manufacture of battens and high-quality veneers, are mainly used in small industries. In a home-made sawmill, made with your own hands, the cutting tool is a chain from a chainsaw of the appropriate size.
The choice of the type of sawmill depends entirely on the preferences and material possibilities of the owner of the suburban area.
Depending on the availability of source components, home-made sawmills with their own hands can be made in various versions. The main thing is that the device meets the following requirements:
- Quality and accuracy. This indicator is significantly affected by the ability of the device to produce both horizontal and vertical sections.
- The functionality of the equipment is characterized by the ability to perform the required operations: from the dissolution of logs on boards to the production of various finishing materials.
- Efficiency determines the ability of equipment to perform processing processes in the right volumes and the required speed of operations.
Fulfillment of all these requirements will allow a home-made sawmill to become a reliable assistant in construction business.
Disk device design
In fact, this tool is a simple design, which consists of a desktop, a rotating cutting disc and a drive device.
All these parts, assembled into a single mechanism, are a circular saw.
By the number of cutting elements, circular saw-saws, made with their own hands, can be divided into single and multi-saw. Several disks can be located on the same shaft, while doing the same operation at the same time, which greatly increases the performance of the sawmill.
There are also angular disk devices that produce cuts at a certain angle. Sawing with such structures is performed in both directions, since they do not have a reverse stroke. Angular sawmills can also have one or two cutting saws.
Production of a disk sawmill
You can make a disk sawmill with your own hands, even without significant skills in using such a technique. To do this, you will need:
- construction goats;
- parts for fastening (screws, screws, nuts);
- metal plates;
- tools (hammer, screwdriver, wrenches);
- Electrical engine.
The base of the sawmill is made of metal or wooden construction goats by fastening them together with boards. A table is mounted on top of the base, which is composed of metal plates about four millimeters thick and about 200 mm wide.
The cutting disc is mounted from below, strictly in the middle of the guide clearance. In addition, when creating a do-it-yourself sawmill, a very important structural element will be the bracket to which the engine with the cutting disc will be mounted.
Features of cutting discs
The simplest and most reliable option for selecting a suitable saw blade is to purchase it in a distribution network. Still, the factory tool has more precise processing and high reliability.
But if there is a steel sheet about three millimeters thick, then you can make a disk yourself. The cutting disc should have a diameter of at least 500 mm, if you get a larger one, this will improve the quality of work.
Saw teeth play the most important role when cutting wood. In order for a disk to saw all types of wood with equal efficiency, it is enough to have two or three teeth. The main indicator of the quality work of the sawmill, made with your own hands, is considered the correct angle of cutting wood. Therefore, the correct slope of the straight cutter will be about 30 degrees, and in the opposite direction - about 15 degrees.
Poor balancing of the cutters can lead to friction on the walls of the cut, which also negatively affects the quality of work.
The principle of operation of the power-saw bench
The design of such a sawmill is two rotating pulleys, between which the cutting blade is stretched. Sawing a tree occurs due to the reciprocating movement of the sawing tape, which is carried out due to the rotation of the pulleys.
The bracket with the cutting element is mounted on a mobile trolley. Moving along a stationary log, the cutting tool cuts the material. The length of the wood processing depends on the length of the guide rails, and the width on the distance between the pulleys.
To make a quality cut, you must:
- firmly fix the log;
- adjust the evenness and accuracy of the cut;
- the teeth of the saw blade should be well sharpened and bred;
- the cutting blade must have the appropriate tension.
The tension of the tape for the sawmill, made by hand, is most often carried out using a spring system.
Since this design has a large weight, it is advisable to arrange a concrete foundation at the place of its operation or place the bars under the support posts.
Then guide rails about 8 meters long are assembled. To exclude the possibility of deformation of the structure, you need to fasten them with ties from the pipe.
A do-it-yourself mobile trolley for a home-made sawmill is made of a steel monolithic plate 60 cm long and 80 mm wider than the distance between the rails.
Then the pulleys are mounted on the assembled movable carriage, with one pulley being made movable and the other not. To prevent the blade from falling during cutting, they should be positioned at an angle of 4 ° relative to their axis vertically.
The next step is to install the log clamps. And finally, in order to avoid damage, the electric motor is strengthened and connected, the cutting blade is pulled.
Features of a power-saw bench
The design of the tire-type sawmill has no special tricks. The cutting device here is a chain from a conventional chainsaw mounted on a tire. The first types of such equipment were made on the basis of a conventional manual chainsaw. Currently, an independent device of such units is manufactured using more powerful electric and gasoline engines.
Do-it-yourself mini-sawmills of tire type assembled most often are used at small enterprises for the manufacture of parts of non-standard size and shape. The small size of the tire device and the use of a gasoline engine allow the use of such a sawmill as mobile equipment, which is easy to move to the place of work.
First you need to assemble the sawing assembly unit. U-shaped bracket is made. In the central part of it is a tire that is fixed on both sides.
It is better to arrange the chain tension due to the movement of the drive sprocket. The adjustment principle is simple: the drive element is mounted on the gearbox shaft, the shaft itself is mounted on metal plates with longitudinal slots. Due to the movement of the gearbox in the desired direction, the chain tension will change.
The gearbox shaft is mounted on the key, and the second pulley is mounted on the motor. The design of the clutch belts may be different, while the tension is carried out by the rollers.
The supporting base is similar in design to a tape sawmill. Here you also need to arrange guide rails along which the bracket will move, as well as clamping devices for the log.
A do-it-yourself sawmill is made on the basis of a portable building saw with an internal combustion engine. A special advantage of this design is the ability to use a chainsaw for its intended purpose. To do this, just remove it from the unit clamp on the bracket.
During the installation of a sawmill from a chainsaw with your own hands, it is necessary to strictly observe the technology and assembly steps:
- The base of the structure is assembled from metal corners of equal size. Welding can be used to fasten all parts, but bolted joints are more commonly used. In order for the cutting device to freely reach any point of the log, the frame length is taken 0.3–0.5 m longer than the workpieces.
- To eliminate the effect of vibration and displacement, the base of the sawmill should be stable, durable and sufficiently rigid.
- The movable block is made of a steel plate on which the chainsaw is mounted.
Tips for operating the sawmill
Hazardous equipment, which includes sawing devices, must be operated in compliance with basic safety regulations. Therefore, the basic principles of safe operation should not be neglected:
- The room where the sawmill is installed should be well ventilated and have adequate lighting.
- The device installed in the open air needs to be equipped with a canopy, which will protect not only the mechanism, but also the processed material from moisture.
- Before starting work, it is necessary to lubricate the main nodes of the sawmill, as well as carefully check the moving parts and cutting devices.
- All work on the operation and maintenance of the sawmill must be carried out in a protective suit, mittens and glasses.
Before you make a sawmill with your own hands, you need to carefully familiarize yourself with the device of this equipment. Each owner should choose the type and design of the sawmill based on the functional need, quality of lumber and financial capabilities.