What is insomnia? Causes and treatment of the disease

Not only doctors, but also many of our contemporaries suffering from insomnia, can tell about what insomnia is. As statistical studies have shown, such a violation is one of the most common today. Surveys show that the number of sufferers is increasing daily. About a third of men, more than a third of all women, about a quarter of children suffer from sleep disorders, and among pregnant women this figure reaches 75%. Many do not take pathology seriously, do not practice treatment and do not turn to specialists, hoping that the situation will be resolved on their own. This provokes the transition of the disease into a chronic form, neurological and mental disorders are formed, various diseases develop.

Relevance of the issue

Many people who know from their own experience what insomnia is, do not consider this pathological condition to be a good reason to go to the clinic. Some people prefer self-medication, but it only helps in a small percentage of especially mild cases. More often it’s impossible to cope with sleep disorders on our own. To achieve improvement, it is reasonable to consult a doctor. With insomnia, not only the quantity, but also the quality of night rest is disturbed, and this negatively affects the person’s ability to live and work, to function in society.

Talking about what insomnia is, doctors pay attention to what a pathological condition manifests itself in a variety of phenomena. Some are disturbed by intermittent sleep, frequent awakenings, difficulty falling asleep. They talk about problem falling asleep if they can’t fall asleep in half an hour and a longer time period. Another possible manifestation of insomnia is a low level of sleep efficiency. The patient wakes up without a sense of relaxation, during the day he is constantly worried about fatigue and lack of energy.

from insomnia folk

Why is it important?

Doctors who have studied what insomnia is have revealed the importance of sleep for human health. During a night's rest, the body gets the opportunity to restore energy reserves. A normal person needs sleep for 6-10 hours. On average, about a third of our lives, we must sleep in order to function normally the rest of the time. In the period of sleep, brain structures are involved in the processing of information received. The elements of consciousness and subconsciousness are turned on and active, in addition, the processes of memorization, equally long-term and designed for a short time, work. During sleep, a behavioral strategy is developed. Without sleep, it is impossible to spend more than two hundred hours. A person who does not have the ability to sleep normally, efficiently, enough to sleep, gradually loses activity, emotions, ability to respond to external conditions. Such a person is sluggish, often sick, because the immune system weakens due to lack of sleep.

What provokes?

Insomnia is a condition that can be disturbing due to mental disorders, somatic diseases. Sometimes the reason is an emotionally unstable state, taking medications. Sleep disturbance is possible against the background of bad habits and if, shortly before sleep, a person eats a lot. An excess of thyroid hormones, a depressive disorder can provoke a pathological condition. Sometimes insomnia is observed in patients with neurosis, may accompany parkinsonism, indicate renal dysfunction or arthritis. If a person often worries, various kinds of problems (from small household to global) become the reason for this, probably, the quality of his sleep is also quite low.

Most often, insomnia worries those who worry too much, suffer from mental disorders and diseases of the endocrine system. Among patients with insomnia there are many people with apnea, neurological abnormalities. Insomnia is possible due to pain, the frequent influence of external stimuli. Sleep problems are usually observed in those working on the night shift, as well as in people who are forced to change the time zone.

women insomnia treatment

The nuances of the reasons

As studies show on why insomnia is especially disturbing at night, some people have insomnia due to their individual health conditions. Among these special factors include the age of the person and the specifics of temperament, as well as the general condition of the body, the presence of any diseases. An important role is played by lifestyle. Among people complaining of sleep disturbances, most of all are elderly, pregnant, and also those who are forced to deal with a difficult life situation.

How to notice?

Usually the signs of insomnia immediately attract attention: a person with difficulty falls asleep, sleeps restlessly, wakes up often. After each such awakening, falling asleep again is a real problem, sometimes it is not possible to fall asleep until the very morning. During the day, the patient feels tired, he is lethargic and lethargic. All the symptoms are bright enough, it is not difficult to determine.

In the daytime, a patient with insomnia tends to get irritated, sluggishly reacts to external factors, is inattentive and distracted. He is prone to mood swings. Gradually, this leads to the inability to function normally in society, while the interest of a person decreases, due to which he does not see the need to solve the problem. Many people are constantly drawn to sleep during the day. Often with insomnia, the head hurts, there are disturbances in the functioning of the stomach and intestines.

What to do?

If insomnia is bothering, this does not mean that you immediately need to take the most powerful drugs for insomnia. You can start with household methods of alleviating the condition. You will have to reconsider your daily routine and lifestyle, start eating properly, without absorbing excess amounts of food in the evening. It is advisable to have dinner three hours before bedtime or earlier, not to drink alcohol and drinks containing caffeine shortly before a night's rest. You should constantly ventilate the room in which the bed stands. To fall asleep faster, in the evenings you can go for a short walk, but a TV and a computer are not the best option.

To minimize problems with falling asleep, you need to choose a comfortable mattress, choose a quality pillow. If this is required by the characteristics of the body, it is reasonable to revise your daily regimen so that it is possible to sleep for several hours. In general, the patient's task is to stabilize the mode of work and rest.

These measures are quite simple to implement, while helping to stabilize the ability to fall asleep, and help maintain a high quality of sleep. But if there is no benefit and insomnia continues to bother, then you need to make an appointment with the doctor.

insomnia what to take


If prolonged insomnia reduces the quality of life, and simple methods of struggle do not give the desired result, it is reasonable to consult a doctor. To examine the patient, you can resort to the Epworth methodology. It is supposed to use a special scale according to which the level of drowsiness is estimated by points, the maximum - four. The doctor asks the patient questions, calculates points based on the answers received. It is necessary to examine the patient and direct them to instrumental examinations in order to exclude other serious pathological conditions. When diagnosing, take into account that insomnia is mild, severe. Determining the therapeutic approach, they evaluate what caused the phenomenon and fight it.

Types and Forms

According to the current classification system, insomnia is considered a condition in which the quantity, quality of sleep is regarded as unsatisfactory, while the patient notes this condition for a month three times every week or more often. Studies have shown that night sleep is divided into two phases: during one eye they move quickly, with the second there is none. The second phase is divided into four periods, of which two are slow waves, that is, deep sleep, during which the energy reserve is restored.

In the classifier of pathologies there is dissomnia. This is an extensive concept, including insomnia. It includes difficulties with falling asleep, sleep instability, an excessive feeling of drowsiness, in medicine called hypersomnia.

Causal relationship

To assess which factor provokes the problem, study the features of insomnia. How to fall asleep, the doctor will explain when the nature of the phenomenon becomes clear. Doctors divide all phenomena into endogenous, exogenous. The second option is possible if a person neglects sleep hygiene, uses stimulants, psychoactive compounds, and is constantly under stressful conditions. An endogenous pathological condition is possible with idiopathic, physiological insomnia, apnea, and leg restlessness.

Insomnia can develop with a failure of circadian rhythms and an unsuccessful, inappropriate working mode. The psychophysiological option is often worrying, if a person sleeps too little, for a long time he is a victim of a stressful situation. Circadian rhythms can be frustrating in the version in which the quality of slow sleep suffers, and a fast failure may occur. More often the fast period is lost in the elderly, the slow - in the youth.

Before starting treatment for insomnia in women, men, children, it is necessary to determine the nature of the phenomenon. Doctors distinguish sleep disorders due to adaptation, psychophysical reasons. The phenomenon may be associated with behavior or have an idiopathic nature. Malfunctions can provoke mental disorders, improper hygiene, somatic disorders. One possible problem is pseudo-insomnia.

Each of the types has its own characteristics and nuances. For example, adaptive insomnia is provoked by the influence of aggressive stress factors and lasts up to a quarter of a year, but no more. But the psychophysical is accompanied by a feeling of fright caused by the difficulty with falling asleep. The closer the evening and the time you go to bed, the stronger the person’s nervous tension. The idiopathic form is observed in children, a long period persists.

what is insomnia

Real or not?

Sometimes children are disturbed by headaches and insomnia due to incorrect settings. So, if you accustom a child to the fact that before falling asleep they always rock him, the absence of this process leads to a pathological condition. It is called behavioral insomnia.

Many mental pathologies manifest themselves, among other things, by insomnia. On average, seven out of ten clients in psychiatric hospitals suffer from sleep disorders. Violations are possible due to inattention to oneself and one's health, neglect of sleep hygiene. In some, somatic pathological conditions, for example, an ulcer or arrhythmia, become the cause. If a person incorrectly accepts funds, in particular sleeping pills, sooner or later he also faces insomnia. A similar nature of the disorder is diagnosed if insomnia is caused by alcohol.

Pseudoinsomnia is a condition where the perception of the quality of rest and its duration is impaired. People believe that they sleep very little, while the actual duration of rest is sufficient for the body.

Children are ill

Quite often trying to figure out what to do with insomnia at home, parents whose children suffer from sleep disorders. Most often, in minors, insomnia develops in psychophysiological, behavioral forms. There is a likelihood of violations against the background of drug therapy and with somatic pathologies. The most common causes include pain, reflux, and seizure.

On average, every third preschool child has behavioral insomnia. This is possible with an associative disorder, defective containment mechanisms, for example, a child may refuse to go to bed on time.

Do I need a doctor?

Although there are many options and tips telling about how to deal with insomnia at home, do not indulge in self-medication - this can lead to undesirable severe consequences. In the case of insomnia, it is reasonable to consult a qualified doctor who will determine the nature of the phenomenon and choose the appropriate treatment option based on this. Some believe that it is enough to take sleeping pills, sedatives, when there are difficulties with falling asleep. This practice can cause habits, general poisoning of the body. Perhaps a violation of the organs. Self-medication is harmful to health, while the root cause that provokes the problem is not eliminated.

Based on the characteristics of the case, the doctor will advise how to cope with insomnia. Sometimes, for example, the doctor recommends not taking medications at all, but resorting to simple and safe folk recipes. In some cases, herbal therapy is advised, the help of a psychotherapist or psychologist. Encephalophony may help.

insomnia what to do home

Popular and not very

One of the most reliable ways to cure insomnia is to contact a therapist. The doctor will help if sleep disturbances are caused by stress factors, are associated with the activity of the nervous system, and are provoked by strong emotional experiences. During the sessions, the doctor teaches the client to treat the existing problem differently. To some extent, the doctor and patient work with the psychosomatic roots of insomnia.

Encephalophony is relatively rare these days. To treat the patient in this way, the clinic must have specialized facilities. The essence of the procedure is the conversion of electrical brain impulses into musical notes that allow the patient to listen.

The most popular non-drug treatment option in our country is herbal therapy. Classic sedative formulations are prepared using mint, medicinal chamomile. Melissa is a positive effect.

What is in pharmacies?

Many drugs have been developed to get rid of insomnia. Determining which of the vast pharmacy assortment is suitable for a particular patient is not easy. It is better to entrust the choice to a qualified doctor. An individual solution should be such that the drug fights the root cause, does not cause allergies and has a minimum of side effects. Choosing medications, they try to find one due to which sleep will be high-quality and constant during the night, while in the daytime the effect would be minimal so that a person could function normally. Another problem with selecting medications for insomnia is the likelihood of addiction.

When the doctor says which pills for insomnia you should try first, at the same time he will explain how to use them correctly so as not to harm yourself. Usually, the selection begins with medicines, which contain plant components. A popular representative of the category is Persen. Sometimes, treatment is started with the soft preparation Melaxen, the active component of which is melatonin. Having determined which remedy is more suitable for the patient, the doctor prescribes it for a twenty-day period.

prolonged insomnia

Enhancing the effect

If healer tips and recipes of alternative medicine (folk) were tried, this did not help from insomnia, when the safe herbal preparations presented in pharmacies also did not give the desired result, the doctor prescribes sedatives or tranquilizers. Start with medicines made using melatonin. Due to tranquilizers, the feeling of anxiety and anxiety disappears, mental disorders are weakened, sleep becomes better. It is necessary to use medicines only on prescription and under his supervision. It should be remembered that such drugs are known for a wide list of contraindications and undesirable effects of admission.

Of course, no one will sell tranquilizers to improve sleep without prescriptions. For insomnia, the doctor may prescribe Lormetazepam, Temazepam, and Gidazepam. However, it is likely that this approach will not bring the desired result. When prescribing the patient drugs from the benzodiazepine group, it should be remembered that for people of advanced age, the compositions with the shortest half-life will be optimal. It is recommended that the client means that when ingested it does not transform into active metabolites.

About performance: nuances

If the patient is worried not only about insomnia, but also anxiety during wakefulness, a group of benzodiazepines with a long half-life comes to the rescue. They resort to them, if with insomnia folk remedies, pharmaceutical products of poor effectiveness, simple tranquilizers do not give the desired result.

In recent years, benzodiazepines are inferior in prevalence to antidepressants, showing a sedative effect. Patients with insomnia are prescribed Trazodon, Nortriptyline, and Amitriptyline. Many patients who are prescribed Zaleplon, Zolpidem, admit that they began to fall asleep much faster. Among the positive aspects - a short period of half elimination, a relatively small list of undesirable consequences for the body.

About hormonal treatment

There is practically no way to find drugs dispensed from pharmacies without prescriptions, insomnia helps only fairly strong substances that affect the human psyche, so the sale of products is strictly limited by laws. Among the relatively safe agents that a doctor can recommend include Circadian. The main component of the medication is artificially made sleep hormone melatonin. Normally, the substance is responsible for regulating sleep, and if it is deficient in the body, they may recommend taking a synthetic substitute. Up to 5 mg of such a compound can be used per day.

“Circadin” is often prescribed to people over fifty years of age who have turned to the doctor for advice on what to take with insomnia, to make it easier to fall asleep, and the rest itself would become more stable and better. The duration of hormonal treatment cannot exceed 3 weeks. Melatonin is able to react with luteinizing hormone, which imposes restrictions on the use of the drug by pregnant women and adolescent girls undergoing puberty.

Sleep and age

Very often, among others, the manifestation of menopause is observed insomnia. What to take in such a situation, the leading case endocrinologist can tell. Many women, faced with menopause, cannot fall asleep at night, but in the daytime they constantly fall asleep. Choosing various options and tools that are useful in this case, they usually stop on estrogen of plant origin.

Often, among other things, a bunch of health problems in old age there is also insomnia. What to do at home, how to help yourself, is also better to find out from a qualified doctor. To many, insomnia seems like simple fatigue, while in the daytime a person can fall asleep, but at night there are problems. Doctors advise to drink a glass of warmed milk shortly before bedtime. You can take warm baths with herbal extracts that have a sedative effect: chamomile, mint.

If sleep disturbances are observed in a child, perhaps the reason is a failure in the rhythm of sleep and wakefulness, as well as instability of the nervous system. Newborns often cannot fall asleep due to hunger, colic, stress and temperature fluctuations. Older children often have insomnia, if they have to move, change their place of study. One of the manifestations of the infestation of worms is insomnia. What to do at home, the infectious disease specialist will tell, based on the results of the tests.

Homeopathy and sanatoriums

Homeopathy for the treatment of insomnia offers several options that may be helpful. For example, at elevated temperatures and insomnia, it is advised to use aconite. If the condition is accompanied by a tendency to get irritated, a chilibuha will come to the rescue. With anxiety, sadness, anxiety and personal tragedy, Ignatia can help.

Sanatorium and resort conditions are considered extremely useful. Going to a medical institution is necessary only after examination by a doctor. The doctor will determine what caused insomnia, advise which particular sanatorium will be especially useful. For the entire period of stay in the institution will have to abandon bad habits, clearly follow the regime of rest and wakefulness. As a rule, sanatoriums offer their clients a rich treatment program, including the use of healthy teas, massages and procedures, and physical education. In addition, it is possible to spend a lot of time in the fresh air, and it is also very useful for sleep disorders.

insomnia get rid of medication

Home treatment

If there is no way to go to a sanatorium for treatment, there is no need to take potent drugs, you can try Menovazin, Glycine, and a motherwort pharmacy extract. In addition, it is believed that sleep improves if, shortly before rest, eat a little fresh onion. Dry bay leaf is sewn into the pillow. You can drink medicine prepared from Cahors before bedtime. The drink is mixed with dill seeds, boiled for a third of an hour, let it brew for another hour. The finished product is drunk in half a glass every evening.

Valerian infusion may help. Boil a glass of water on a tablespoon of chopped fresh rhizomes and let it brew for seven hours. The finished medicine is consumed in a large spoon three times daily. The duration of the course will be advised by a doctor.

Nice and helpful

A person suffering from insomnia can be sent to a massage course. The doctor can explain and show how to do a simple massage procedure yourself. As a rule, you need to go to the hospital for a massage once a week or two, while home procedures can be practiced every evening. The easiest and most reliable option is to massage the feet. There are no contraindications. The task of a person is to stretch the feet for a third of an hour before bedtime.

Chinese gymnastics comes to the aid of patients. She is practiced 10 minutes before her planned bedtime. It is necessary to work with the head, ears, massage the stomach and neck, treat the feet. How to do all the activities correctly, it is better to find out from a specialist in Chinese gymnastics, because incorrect execution of movements can harm the body.

A good option is breathing exercises. If you practice it every day, falling asleep will be much easier. Having set the rhythm for his breathing, a person activates the muscle press, normalizes the work of the stomach and intestines, improves blood flow to the brain. Such exercises are recommended for both young people and middle-aged and elderly people. True, one cannot immediately start with large-scale complexes; for the first time, only a small set of tasks should be done, gradually expanding the variety and increasing the duration of the approach. The basic rule of breathing exercises is to use only the nose and take longer exhalations than inhalation.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/A10625/

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