Wood products, especially those that are exposed to the atmosphere and are located on the street, need protection from the effects of water, the sun and other factors harmful to wood. To extend the life of the wooden product, improve its decorative properties, special protective compounds are used - stains.
Stains are aqueous (water-soluble) and non-aqueous, in which the pigment is dissolved using various chemical mixtures.
Non-aqueous formulations of the protective coating are characterized by increased moisture resistance.
Like a water-soluble mixture, non-aqueous stain is used:
- to protect wood from decay;
- to resist mold;
- for the protection of wooden products from insect pests and microorganisms.
After drying, it forms a protective film on the surface that cannot be washed off with water, and the surface itself, if the mixture is correctly applied, does not require additional varnish painting.
This stain can not be bred with water. The pigment mixture penetrates deeply through the wood fibers and does not cause its swelling.
The disadvantage of almost all non-aqueous stains is a pungent smell, so apply the composition on a wooden base in a well-ventilated area, in a respirator.
Important! Work requires accuracy so that dust does not settle on the sticky surface, drops or smudges form.
Types and composition of non-aqueous pigment mixtures
In its composition, protective coatings have different characteristics.
Non-aqueous stain for wood has such components that affect the technical features and quality of the mixture.
The main types of non-aqueous solutions in chemical composition:
- Alcohol - a solution of aniline dyes in alcohol, characterized by rapid drying (25-30 minutes). The liquid structure of the alcohol stain causes the rapid penetration of coloring pigments into the layers of wood. However, the fluid consistency of the composition does not allow it to be applied to the painted surfaces with a brush or roller, visible spots and stains may remain. It is recommended to use a spray gun (spray) when applying this type of stain to the wood surface. They have proven themselves excellently in decorating an impressive area of wooden surfaces.
- The oil composition, where linseed oil is usually taken as the basis, is ideal for achieving UV-resistant finishes. It can also be used for decorative purposes in wood processing. The mixture is available with a wide range of colors, perfectly masks wood imperfections. It can be applied to the surface with any improvised tool: sponge, brush, foam rubber roller, spray gun. To dilute a non-aqueous oil stain, use white spirit. The coating treated with an oil stain dries from two to four hours, depending on the temperature in the room or on the street, as well as on the concentration of the composition.
- Wax stains are mainly used to mask small defects on wooden surfaces. In their composition, wax and acrylic mixtures are similar to oil, but have much greater moisture resistance. However, this composition is quite sensitive to abrasion or any other mechanical stress, and therefore suitable for coating minor surfaces. It is widely used in restoration work. The drying time of wax and acrylic stains is about five hours.
Technique for applying stain
Before applying a protective coating, the surface of the wood must be treated in a special way.
Basic rules for applying stain:
- The wood is treated with sandpaper to remove any bumps, scratches or dents from the surface. This is rough grinding.
- Sanding should be started with a sandpaper with a grain size of 80-100, the finish is carried out with an abrasive sandpaper with a grain of 150-180. Moreover, processing is always carried out along the wood fibers.
- The minimum coating is two layers; after applying the first, sand the surface with finishing sandpaper.
- If there are stains on the wood, they are disposed of by grinding before painting.
Tools and methods for applying stains:
- Oil, acrylic and wax stains are applied to the surface of the wood with a brush of natural bristles, you can use a tampon from a material with a smooth structure.
- For alcohol stains a spray gun is used.
- The coating of water and acrylic mixtures is applied with a swab, roller, synthetic brush.
- The accepted method is to apply the protective composition in excess without subsequent wiping. In this way, deep saturated tones are achieved. Partial wiping of excess after drying of the previous layer is possible. It is applied to oil, wax and acrylic stains.
- The second method is applying with excess and wiping off excess tampons. It is applied to the wood surface in a circular motion to remove smudges and stains until the layer dries. Applicable for water and acrylic compositions.
Non-aqueous stain: color scheme
Manufacturers produce several options for filling protective mixtures.
These are the following types:
- Transparent stains. Used to create a protective film on the surface of a tree. In addition, transparent mixtures perfectly shade the structure of the tree, give the product a well-groomed appearance, tint and protect.
- Colored compounds. This type of stain can be used for design purposes, give the tree unusual shades, and turn an ordinary pine into a bog oak.
Non-standard, bright color shades are also available: emerald, pearl, various tones of the gray color now fashionable in design.
The palette of shades is quite diverse, with imitation of valuable wood species. Manufacturers produce colored stains for oak, ebony, rosewood, walnut, mahogany, wenge and others.
Different points of view
Stains differ mainly in their composition and consistency. The difference is visible when comparing some species with each other.
- Non-aqueous stain "Oak" in its composition has organic solvents, synthetic resins and dyes. It is resistant to abrasion, has fire retardant properties, and is used to give wood noble shades. It is possible to coat one layer with a brush or roller, as the mixture penetrates deeply into the structure of the tree. Customer reviews confirm the decorative properties of this type of stain, especially dark colors.
- Non-aqueous stain “Lacra” is resistant to weathering. It contains organic solvents, synthetic resins, plasticizers, pigments. Lacra dries quickly, is applied in 2-3 layers to obtain the desired shade. The coating is carried out by a spray gun, swab, synthetic brush. According to customer reviews, the “Lacra” stain does not cause wood swelling, is easily applied with a spray, but has a very pungent odor. Recommendation: carry out painting in a ventilated room, before working, clean the wood from dirt and dust.
Which is better: do not argue about tastes
Which composition to choose for protecting or decorating wood is up to the consumer to decide. The main thing is to correctly apply the selected type of non-aqueous stain.
In this case, it is necessary to take into account the general rules or subtleties of applying to the surface of a wooden product, adopted for all compositions of wood stains:
- the stain can be heated before use, this will enhance the absorption of the composition into the wood structure;
- so that there are no drips, it is not necessary to dip the brush or roller strongly in the composition, it is recommended to take a small amount of solution;
- the surface after grinding must be treated with white spirit before applying a protective coating;
- make a test on the surface to understand the effect of the selected stain on the treated wood species.
And everything will surely work out!