Organization as a living organism is a system of organized information processes coming from outside, circulating inside, created as a result. Moreover, not all of them are consciously formed by management and / or employees, objective reality plays a significant role.
A functional model is a system of connected systems: in addition to the planned, many structural elements, processes, and functions arise, including as a result of errors in management, employee misunderstanding of the task, or biased assessment of the result by the manager. Inadequate analysis of external influences, duplication of tasks, variety of decisions, decision psychology and many other circumstances are the basis for a study that analyzes the organization’s management models and offers effective solutions.
At any point in time, you can determine what a functional organization model looks like in an “as is” state (AS IS). From the standpoint of the established methods, it is possible to analyze the obtained ideas and formulate ways of more efficient work and further development of the organization.
Existing experience and methods
The main modeling technique IDEF0 (Integrated Definition Function Modeling) is currently represented by various options and real positive experience. It is based on the idea of an indivisible particle - a block that displays a certain business function. The sides of the block are its roles. Left - input, right - output, upper - control, lower - mechanism.
Such a formal attitude to the organization allows us to present it in the form of interconnected blocks (business functions). Consequently, the structural model of organization is represented by a combination of simple elements. Functional decomposition principle : one block - one business function. The complexity constraint principle limits the number of elements in each diagram. The principle of context - the essence of the business function of the organization itself is presented as a combination of ideas about what was planned to create, what is and how it works.
For the objective construction of an organization management model, the achieved experience in the development and implementation of automated workplaces is also important , the stimulus of which was the progress in the development of computer technology, the appearance of local and global networks.
The result of applying the methodology: “as will be” (TO BE) usually represents how one or another information system is being introduced, and the process of company development is considered as a transition from the current state to the given one. The application of the methodology itself does not always give a significant result. Not every functional management model can be adapted to one or another modern information system.
Foundations for modeling
A functional organization model is a very difficult task. To simplify the work, it should first be assumed that the material component is in good condition and functioning flawlessly, and the organization’s technical services provide it with everything necessary, control engineering structures and the supply of necessary types of energy in sufficient quantities.
With this assumption, it is possible to determine how the functional model for a given organization looks in the “as is” position (AS IS) in its purest form. If subsequently it turns out that the material component has not shown its best side, another simulation will be required.
To achieve success, before turning on the device, you must assume that the outlet has the right voltage.
Initial goal of modeling
Having formulated the business function of the organization, its position in the surrounding socio-economic space, it is possible to determine the range of incoming information processes and outgoing traffic. Materials, tools, equipment, as well as the result of the functioning of the organization: products, services, socially useful activities are secondary and are presented in the course of modeling as descriptions, information about existing real objects.
A common business function as a system that combines many elements and processes is presented as a set of blocks that implement simple business functions. At this stage, duplicate blocks are determined, a spectrum of tasks is formed.
Understanding organization management models is very important.
The organization provides management to the owner, director, managers, managers at various levels. But the functional model should reflect the real state of things and consider company personnel as a specific active resource.
It doesn’t matter who is building the model. This can be a third-party organization or your own unit. The distinction is significant: managing an organization is one thing, modeling is another.
To accurately determine the state of “as is”, one should not rely on the opinion of employees - in this case, personnel in all its positions is primarily a subject of research. They are described by a functional model of the process, which ultimately gives a complete picture of all processes.
Guide and guide ...
The influence of management and owners significantly slows down the modeling process, which affects the functioning of the organization. This is evidenced by the experience of applying the technique. The construction of the model “as is” in the context of understanding by its leadership is of a specific personal nature.
Choosing an executor, it should be accepted as an absolute fact: it is he who is responsible for his actions and is not obliged to carry out advice, recommendations or direct instructions from the organization.
Information Systems: Required Functionality
Recognizing the achievements in the development of information systems for electronic document management, accounting, logistics, etc., we have to admit that the rigidity of decisions has become a tradition. There are as yet no systems that could go beyond the tasks formulated at the beginning. Tasks are characterized by development; software solutions do not develop.
Taking any existing system (for example, “1C: Accounting”, “1C: Document Management”, eDocLib), you can not only see the level of developer’s ideas about its functionality, but also immediately encounter restrictions in the implementation of certain business functions.
But we must take into account the fact that, without applying at least one of the existing methods, it is impossible to get an idea of what kind of functionality is needed, and which is obviously superfluous.
Having implemented this or that information system, one often has to refine algorithms and develop additional software. This is a very important point for modeling the core business function of an organization.
Company Information Server
For the effective application of established methods and the formation of a functional model as an ideal (desired) structure of functions and processes, it is convenient to consider a company in the form of, for example, a website. This allows you to create your own internal infrastructure (main office and remote units), implant the programs used in it (accounting, logistics, document management) and provide functionality according to the official duties of employees.
In this form, it is convenient not only to formalize the functions of each element (personnel, equipment, programs used, important tables, etc.), but also to ensure their development in the course of the company’s work.
Current electronic "vinaigrette"
It is difficult to underestimate the contribution that spreadsheets and Word documents made to the organization of electronic document management. From the point of view of modeling and constructing a functional model of the organization, analysis of information processes, the tables and files used are important.
By systematizing information about the resources used, it is easy to determine the source of their changes, the consumer, and, above all, the current content. The established tradition often leads to the fact that full-fledged electronic documents in their formats are included in various document management systems. In terms of implementation, this is acceptable, but in terms of efficiency, no.
Recently, tools for creating and processing spreadsheets and documents using the PhpOffice libraries (PhpExcel and PhpWord) have appeared and developed. Using these tools allows you to isolate only the necessary information from real documents and generate the desired results that can be opened traditionally in MS Excel and MS Word.
Private summary of results
The use of popular functional modeling techniques, selected information systems, accounting and logistics programs, combined into a single proprietary information system (server), allows you to create the desired organization management model. And with the help of tools like PhpOffice, you can give it flexibility, the possibility of development.
Unfortunately, without additional programming, it is rarely possible to build the desired information system. However, it is very important to take into account the gained understanding of functionality in the used software products.
In particular, a modern spreadsheet is primarily a necessary functional, and its real content is an actual reflection of a functional block on a structural model. If we take “1C: Bookkeeping” as an example, we can see that its structure and functionality fully reflect reality. At the same time, technical support of the manufacturer eliminates the rigidity of the system, providing the consumer with the opportunity to receive the necessary functionality that reflects changes in the information business space.
Force Majeure: contingencies
Mentioning in its internal and external relations about force majeure circumstances, the organization reliably testifies to its ignorance of how it will come out of a particular situation. And thereby automatically signs the guaranteed withdrawal of obligations.
The organization’s ability to meet its obligations is crucial for partners, for customers and for its own employees, that is, for the surrounding socio-economic environment.
Perfect Company Formula
Nature is expedient, each of its organisms is thought out to the smallest detail and is able not only to adequately respond to any change in the environment, but also to recover on its own, without outside interference.
An ideal organization is one that, in essence, "does not exist," but its function is fulfilled. When an organization organically fits into its social and economic environment, it becomes an indispensable part of it and develops adequately, only then this environment will ensure the life of the company and will take care of it as part of its body.
The result of any modeling of any organization is, first of all, the basis for repeating the process. Modeling is a higher level of reality programming, less formal and rigid than building information systems.
Any program (as experience shows) can be improved, since it is solved by itself. This gives reason to revise the solution algorithm, its result and more competently evaluate the input data.
The constructed model is a higher order program. When implemented, it provides invaluable practical experience and is a good reason to return to the beginning.