Design work involves the development of technical documentation, which is subsequently used as the basis for the implementation of the construction project. Architectural decisions in this context play the role of a link between the structural, functional and aesthetic aspects of the implementation of the plan. The building is being built taking into account the requirements for its practical operation, but if possible, artistic and aesthetic adjustments are also made. The architectural and planning solution does not do without amendments to third-party aspects of the operation of the facility. Developers take into account the social, economic, sanitary, and environmental requirements and conditions in which the future building will be used.
The layout affects several categories of individual groups of architectural and structural objects from which the building is formed. This list, as well as the technical requirements for the implementation of the project, defines a special set of rules (SP). Architectural and planning decisions today are regulated by document SP 31-107, according to which the following categories of planning elements are distinguished:
- Entry group. This category includes vestibules, lobby areas, duty rooms, etc.
- Evacuation routes and stairwells.
- Elevator nodes and openings. Some plans also include chute channels in this category.
For each of these groups, architects select the optimal placement parameters in terms of ergonomics of use and safety.
Solving environmental safety issues
The design of a residential building, as already noted, involves consideration of environmental and sanitary conditions. Without fail, specialists must take into account the gamma background and radiation levels at the site, which is preparing for construction work. If measurements showed an unacceptably low level of environmental safety, then architectural and planning decisions of residential buildings will have to include measures to limit the penetration of radioactive substances into rooms from the underground.
Typically, architects are faced with the task of isolating technical underground spaces and the basement in order to neutralize gas mixtures. As a rule, the struggle is with radon radiation. Practically, such tasks are realized by sealing structural joints and cracks, intensive ventilation of the underground, etc. Dangers can also come from nearby parking lots. In this situation, the architectural and planning decision of the building sets the goal of organizing a barrier against exhaust gases. For this, special structural superstructures are designed, including visors above the entrances. In modern projects, car parks are initially located at a distance from the windows and entrances of residential buildings.
Minimization of noise penetrating residential premises is a necessary measure in terms of providing comfort. Initially, work in this direction is realized through a favorable orientation of the premises. For example, technical and utility rooms are located on the side close to the main streets. Living rooms, on the contrary, are oriented towards the most quiet side - for example, towards the courtyard. But the basic techniques for reducing unwanted noise exposure architectural space-planning decisions lay in the part of the structural structure and finishing work.
This means that the material for the construction of walls must have a certain thickness and structure, suitable to ensure sufficient sound insulation. So, foam and aerated concrete blocks create an effective noise barrier, but they lose to the traditional brick in terms of strength and durability. As for the finish, insulation can be achieved through mineral wool, polystyrene boards, felt pads, etc.
An important parameter for a comfortable and safe stay is also insolation. It indicates the level of exposure to direct solar radiation on living quarters. The normalization of this indicator is achieved due to the optimal distance between the shading facades. In this case, one cannot do without taking into account the construction orientation of the objects. The project developers are no longer picking just the optimal sides of the accommodation, but they regulate the most acceptable orientations of the buildings and sections. In conditions of dense development, the architectural and planning solution can provide regulatory insolation due to additional techniques. These include the use of rotary structural inserts, sections with a shift in the plan, the placement of elevator assemblies and staircases in a shaded corner, etc.
Consideration of regional features when planning
Normative acts subdivide regions according to climatic conditions, offering special requirements for each group. The first group, for example, should be designed with a minimum number of elements of the input group. You should also take into account the possibility of minimizing snowfall and heat loss. The second and third categories provide for the deepening of buildings with more effective wind and snow protection.
To reduce the infiltration of cold air, additional entrances to the buildings are introduced from two sides. Indoor insulation is implemented by standard methods, as provided by a typical architectural and planning solution. Territories with severe frosts are not recommended to be built with buildings with a height of more than 4-5 floors. Otherwise, the combination of roofing is excluded, and the attic rooms should receive reinforced wind protection with insulation.
Layout of apartments
The development of projects for apartments primarily aims at the optimal selection of dimensions and area for each room. In this case, the optimal parameters are understood as the quantities that will conveniently place the necessary furniture, equipment and household appliances. The layout itself is developed taking into account the mentioned climatic, as well as domestic and demographic factors. The type of apartment is also taken into account - for the private sector or social employment. The regulatory requirements for the architectural and planning solution for apartments also set specific boundaries in terms of area. For example, in a one-room apartment, the common room should have an area of at least 14 m 2 . If there are 2 or more living rooms, then this value increases to 16 m 2 .
Layout Transformation Opportunities
Ideas for remodeling apartments often arise in modern newcomers. This is especially true of objects of the old layout, which does not fit into new ideas about interior design. Therefore, new homes are guided by the possibility of future change. What does this mean? At a minimum, the owner will be able to resize the rooms, combine rooms or change functional areas. In the most flexible design, the architectural and planning solution allows for the possibility of combining apartments on one floor. These are radical approaches to transformation, the implementation of which implies a radical re-equipment of communal engineering networks.
Layout of general premises
Opportunities for organizing public spaces inside residential buildings are initially taken into account in the project or are further equipped using the built-in attached method. In this case, the architectural and planning solution takes into account the potential impact of this type of premises on the overlying living rooms. Evaluated indicators of noise, air pollution, the impact of newly introduced engineering equipment, etc.
A feature of architectural and planning documentation is that it allows you to consider the quality characteristics of buildings outside the main line of technical requirements for the strength, durability and reliability of the object. Engineers precisely on this set of parameters make the main emphasis, often ignoring other operational aspects. Complex architectural and planning design solutions, in turn, offer to take into account the residents' requests for ergonomics and safety. These requests are based on research by specialists in various fields. The same regulatory documents and codes of practice are developed by sanitary officers, ecologists, designers, estimators, etc.