Business accounting is necessary for the enterprise if it is engaged in the development of any product. The object of his analysis is the processes occurring in production, and their assessment is carried out both in qualitative and in quantitative terms. As material production develops, it becomes necessary to take into account labor measures and consumption measures. In general, this process is aimed at determining deviations from the implementation of certain tasks, as well as searches for a way to eliminate them.
As for the main characteristics, the business accounting differs in the following:
- During its implementation, various versions of meters are used, the choice of which is governed by the objectives and focus of the procedure.
- It contains data that characterize the period for which this analysis is carried out.
- Business accounting helps to analyze the real situation at the enterprise.
Its main goals and objectives are:
- Conducting an economic analysis that relates to a specific subject.
- Assessment of the appropriateness of decisions made and operations performed.
- Forecasting and development of options for further activities.
- Determining the degree of risk in a particular area.
There are several methods according to which economic accounting is carried out, and its types are also identified on the basis of such a classification. Thus, distinguish between accounting, operational and statistical accounting. It is necessary to explain the essence of each of them.
So, operational accounting is a technology that allows you to observe, reflect and control individual business and technical operations directly during their conduct. This is done in order to carry out operational management. For example, this type of accounting helps to display a lot of production processes, in particular, employees entering work, registering transactions conducted during the month, and so on.
Statistical accounting of business processes is carried out in order to study and control mass phenomena, as well as determine the regularity of their development. The subject here is not only production processes, but also other social phenomena (level of labor productivity, average age of employees, as well as the degree of their provision with housing). As for the techniques that are used in statistical accounting, they are strictly specific. Among them are called a summary, grouping, methodology of averages and more.
It should be noted that the results of operational and statistical accounting are allowed not to be recorded on special forms, because all production processes are not taken into account when they are carried out.
Business accounting is carried out with the aim of conducting a reliable, continuous and legally justified analysis of operations in production. It is characterized by:
- Regular, complete and consistent reflection of business transactions.
- Mandatory documentary evidence of all ongoing processes and actions taken.
- Summarizing data in cash.
- Using techniques such as costing, valuation, and billing.
If we consider countries with market economies, then in them accounting business accounting is divided into financial and managerial. The first of them consists of a set of rules and procedures that should ensure the preparation and publication of information consisting of the results of the enterprise as a whole and its financial condition.
As for management accounting, it is an internal activity. It is carried out in order to provide managers with information about the enterprise and its structural divisions.