What is a project management plan can be understood by understanding the term Project management. This art and science at the same time, well established itself in a consumer-oriented market economy. It is a structured study of the work plan with the identification of intermediate goals for certain dates. As part of its implementation, a responsible person for the project will be appointed, who will perform the work, and supervisory bodies that will monitor compliance with the regulations. Is project management always effective? Who or what affects the end result?
The project management plan is always associated with innovative implementations and consists of elements of analysis of a new product, market, consumer categories. Its main purpose is to solve the planned task in the shortest possible time with maximum saving of monetary resources.
By design, each project has a limited innovative effect. Innovation is manifested in an individual approach to the creation of goods that differ from similar products or services. This ability allows you to systematically refine and amend the properties of a product or service.
This parameter is an integral part of the communications plan of the project, the development of new products, repair construction work or the election campaign, the formation of an information system in the company.
The theoretical aspect involves the knowledge, skills, methods and tools put together to create a new product and service. To meet the requirements of the market and the expectations of investors, it is necessary to find the optimal balance between the costs, timing, goals and quality of the project.
The project plan should logically link all areas of knowledge with the available resources and potential of the performers.
Types of systems
Any task, for example, creating a new product with subsequent implementation, can be performed if there is a project management plan or its absence.
The first option will be based on the application of the matrix system, in which the responsible (manager) of the project is determined. He will be subordinate to the director, and his group will consist of employees of various departments who are exempted from direct work duties for the duration of the project. For such a personnel reshuffle, coherence of the team and a clear presentation of the goals of the project and the result are necessary.
The second option assumes that one of the department heads will be appointed responsible. All project tasks will be performed by the staff of this unit. But in general, employees will not have a complete understanding of this task and will perceive it as an additional burden. As a result, deadlines and results can be unpredictable.
Varieties of projects
Companies use projects in their work as an unconventional method of implementing initiatives that cannot be used in everyday operations. Their share in companies is increasing every year.
Projects are always different, but they have in common. These are conditions of limited time, the search for competent performers and additional money. The following areas are distinguished:
- Architectural design. To succeed in the business, the participation of engineers, designers, consumers, investors is necessary. As a vivid example, we can cite the inventor and architect from the USA B. Fuller, who managed to interest people and develop a model of modular bathrooms. These rooms are an economical option and are used to this day in the construction of residential buildings.
- Conceptual vision. The bottom line is to create the conditions conducive to the creation of new ideas. An example is a project with telephone companies in the USA looking for a method of protecting telephone boxes from marauders. Of the many options settled on stainless steel construction. Today, this element can be seen on the front door in many buildings.
- Planning. It is very important to build a sequence of project execution. For example, by this criterion in Yellowstone National Park, it was possible to implement a master plan for transport interchange and its maintenance.
- Construction of facilities. The work places emphasis on compliance with construction norms and rules, as well as on the systematic monitoring of each stage. The absence of a regulatory body can lead to the destruction of an object with unforeseen damage.
Before dwelling on one of the approaches, it is necessary to develop a project quality management plan. In the production of medical equipment or medicine, the main emphasis is better placed on the high-quality study of the planning stages. In the case when the finished product needs to be redeveloped from one area to another, for example, the installation of air conditioning and heating systems in multi-storey buildings, the main focus is on control.
The project management plan stands today is an integral part of a successful outcome. In the past, its creation was characteristic of traditional areas of production (defense, energy, construction). Currently, this approach is used by almost every second company, or rather, 45% of all organizations. These include financial institutions providing services and products to the company.
Often a company focused on the release of a particular product, feels the need for its systematic modification in response to new customer requirements. In this case, creating a project management plan will help. Today, most organizations operate through this approach.
Tips for creating a plan
In practice, many companies in their endeavors face difficulties and go broke. For example, Lockheed, which failed with L-1011 aircraft, or the Deep Tunnel project, which aims to increase the sewage infrastructure of Chicago. The companies incurred large costs, trying to maintain what they managed to do and realize in their own way - their product.
The main reason for the failures was that the detailed development of the project management plan was not carried out, and the company's management was fully focused on the final result, and not on the successive stages of achieving the goal.
To implement a successful enterprise, it is necessary to develop a concept with a clear sequence of actions, while taking into account the following tips:
- Look at the project from a third party. This technique will allow you to objectively evaluate what is happening, take a fresh look at the situation, solve problems, reconsider costs;
- Delegate decision making. Such an approach will provide an understanding of the intermediate goals of the project, and will increase its effectiveness several times;
- Draw up a backup plan. Additional solutions to problems that may arise will help save time and money. A fragmentation of the concept into several parts will bring it closer to completion.
Responsible for management
A project’s quality management plan is effective when its manager meets certain criteria. Choosing a person who is able to carry out the necessary activities and bring the company to a new level is a risky event. However, it is better not to delay the solution of the issue.
The main attributes of the candidate should be responsibility, ambitiousness, ability to manage people and a high level of competence. In practice, this is not enough, because he also needs to know the content of the work. The project content management plan in most cases consists of the stages:
- documentation development;
- distribution of powers and tasks;
- approval of a work plan;
- scripting for unforeseen situations.
The ultimate is better to give preference to motivated and self-nominated applicants. This is the main feature of the leader - the ability to quickly make serious decisions.
A risk management plan is a structured system for identifying factors, assessing them and responding to them. It consists of accessible and permissible forecasting norms in terms of the consequences of the scenario.
In business, there are several stages of risk management:
- identifying approaches and drawing up an action plan;
- search for risks that can change the outcome of the project;
- qualitative and quantitative risk assessment;
- development of methods and procedures to reduce potential threats;
- monitoring the implementation of the entire project cycle.
It is possible to influence the increase in the final results of the concept, as well as the reduction in the cost and terms of the work, by choosing modern technologies, qualified employees and financial resources to complete the task. The technologies used and the project resource management plan are among the key tools for the success of the company.
Along with the key, there are additional tools necessary to manage the key. For example, they can be concluded contracts that allow you to attract the necessary resources at the right time. The courts include the personnel management system and the concept itself, the formation of information interaction of all participants.
The analysis of project management plans includes two elements: an assessment of the structure and a study of the degree of implementation. Analysis is needed to fully understand how effective the concept is from the perspective of invested resources.
The first element includes the assessment by employees of indicators, tasks, and final results of work. Here, adjustments are made to the future work process. All further processes will relate to the element of performance analysis, in which the work performed is recorded and forecasts are developed.
Most companies use a system for evaluating concept criteria, where they evaluate costs, duration of work and their quality. If any of the criteria is not met, a project change management plan is formed. In this case, the values of the indicators are reviewed, the tasks are adjusted.
The final stage of the analysis is the comparison of the achieved results with the planned ones.
The director’s commitment in unforeseen situations and his adequate assessment of the problems that have arisen play an important role in the implementation of the project management plan.
The lack of this quality among the leader and lack of time to think over the consequences of some decisions are the main causes of problems. Unresolved problems that appeared at the very beginning of the work may not be resolved, which will lead to a breakdown of time or unnecessary economic costs. At the same time, fear and uncertainty in the actions of management can quickly spread to the entire working group. This is a psychological behavior. That is why it is very important for a leader to have concentration and not to lose his temper by hiding emotions.
Any project management plan requires the simultaneous solution of many tasks. Moreover, each question must be answered accurately and in detail. Any nuance that arises determines the fate of the project itself. The issue of risk prevention is mainly solved by the competent approach of specialists.
To implement a successful project, you need to observe the speed of completing tasks, pay attention to details, delegate work to colleagues and evaluate its quality at all stages of the project launch.
Attention to detail
Carrying out market analysis, SWOT analysis, cash flow calculation and other key indicators provides an increase in project performance. A business project management plan not only determines the type of enterprise being implemented, but also includes forecasts of income and expenses. It includes the following elements:
- business description;
- marketing strategy;
- assessment of competitors;
- operating procedures;
Plan as a whole
All project employees act as part of a single whole, because the final result depends on their actions.
Each participant within his area of responsibility affects the spirit of the working group and overall performance. When managing, the important thing is not constant agitation to fulfill the tasks in order to achieve the required performance indicators, but that each participant feels his importance in the common cause.