With an increase in the volume of acquired knowledge and an increase in the requirements for the quality of education, the classical class-lesson system is gradually replaced by interactive teaching methods. As the term itself implies, this method of conducting a lesson provides for intensive intra-group interaction. New knowledge is acquired and tested in the continuous contact of one student with others and the teacher.
Interactive Class Requirements
The use of interactive teaching methods implies that the teacher or teacher has sufficient qualifications. It depends on the leader how well the team members will interact with each other.
There must be a balance between group forms of activity and an individual approach. The team has the ability to "dissolve" an individual person in itself, while the basis of interactive teaching methods is the formation of personality.
The lesson should be arranged in such a way that students are active and interested in all its stages. For this, it is necessary to have a didactic base and a sufficient amount of visual material, as well as to take into account the experience gained earlier.
And finally, the lesson should be age appropriate and take into account the psychological characteristics of the students. Interactive teaching methods in primary school differ significantly in their goals and content from similar classes in a preschool or student group.
Principles and Rules
Interactive forms and teaching methods presuppose freedom of choice, that is, the student should be able to present his point of view on the proposed problem in the most optimal form of expression for him. At the same time, the teacher should not limit his audience only to the scope of the issue under study.
Another principle of interactive teaching methods is the obligatory exchange of experience as a teacher with students, and between students within the group. The knowledge gained during the lesson should be tested in practice, for which it is necessary to create the right conditions.
The third rule is the constant presence of feedback, which can be expressed in consolidating the material covered, its generalization and evaluation. An effective method is to discuss the educational process itself.
Active Group Method
Although a separate student, his abilities and personal qualities are at the center of the interactive teaching methodology, the process itself is collective, therefore group methods are of paramount importance. The teacher’s role is to direct the class’s activities to communication within the framework of a goal: educational, cognitive, creative, and corrective. This approach to learning is called the active group method. It distinguishes three main blocks:
- Discussion (discussion of any topic, analysis of knowledge gained in practice).
- Game (business, role-playing, creative).
- Sensitive training, that is, training of interpersonal sensitivity.
The most important role in the organization of the educational process using the technology of interactive teaching methods is played by the activity of students. It should be understood that the purpose of communication is not only to accumulate and compare experience, but also to achieve reflection, the student must find out how he is perceived by other people.
Interactive classes with preschool children
A person's personality begins to form in early childhood. Interactive teaching methods allow the child, through contact with peers and the educator, to learn not only to express their own opinion, but also to learn to take into account someone else's.
The activity of a preschooler can manifest in various forms. Firstly, the acquisition of new knowledge can be put on a game form. This allows the child to realize his creative abilities, and also contributes to the development of imagination. The game method is implemented both in the form of performing logical exercises and in simulating real situations.
Secondly, an important role is played by experiments. They can be both mental (for example, determining the number of possible ways to solve the same problem), and subject: studying the properties of an object, observing animals and plants.
When conducting an interactive lesson in the younger age group, it should be understood that in order to maintain interest in learning, it is necessary to encourage the child's attempts to figure out the problem on his own, even if his solution was incorrect. The main thing is to let the preschooler develop his own experience, which includes mistakes as well.
Interactive teaching methods in elementary school
Admission to school is always a difficult period for a child, since from this moment he needs to get used to the new regime, to realize that the time is scheduled by the hour, and instead of the usual games, you will have to listen to the teacher’s not always clear explanations and perform useless tasks at first glance. Because of this, the use of interactive teaching methods in the lessons becomes an urgent need: it is they that most effectively allow the child to join the educational process.
In the foreground is the creation of an environment where the child’s cognitive activity is constantly motivated. This contributes to the deep assimilation of the material, and the internal desire to acquire new knowledge. A number of methods are used for this: encouraging the child’s efforts, creating situations in which he feels successful, stimulating the search for innovative and alternative solutions.
The situation in the classroom should orient the child towards empathy, mutual assistance. Thanks to this, the student begins to feel useful, seeks to contribute to the common cause and be interested in the results of teamwork.
Interactive classes hinder the perception of school activities as a boring necessity. Thanks to them, the supply of material is carried out in a bright and figurative form, thanks to which the child's cognitive activity is always at a high level, and in parallel the skills of interpersonal communication and teamwork are formed.
One of the most important tasks of training is to develop critical thinking skills in children. This process can also be carried out in a game form, for example, using the Zigzag strategy.
This technique involves the division of the class into small groups (4-6 people each), which is faced with a specific question. The goal of the working group is to analyze the problem, identify possible methods for solving it, and outline a plan for achieving the goal. After that, the teacher forms expert groups, which should include at least one person from the working group. They are invited to study a specific element from the task. When this is done, the original groups are re-created, in which there is now an expert in their field. Interacting, the children pass on to each other the knowledge they have gained, share their experiences and, on the basis of this, solve the task assigned to them.
Using modern equipment can increase the visibility of the issue under study, as well as help increase class interest in the topic. The interactive whiteboard is synchronized with the computer, but is not tied tightly to it: the main actions are performed directly from the whiteboard using an electronic marker.
The forms of application of such equipment can be very diverse. First of all, the presence of an interactive whiteboard eliminates the need for teachers to control the availability of visual material and monitor its safety. For example, in mathematics lessons, interactive teaching using the whiteboard allows you to draw drawings for tasks, correlate tasks with their answers, and measure areas, perimeters, and corners of figures.
The expansion of the scope of the interactive whiteboard depends only on the imagination and interest of the teacher in the work of the class.
Features of the use of interactive methods in secondary and high school
At the late stages of training, the forms of conducting an interactive lesson become more complicated. Role-playing games are aimed not so much to imitate any situation, but to create it. So, in high school you can play the game "Aquarium", somewhat reminiscent of a reality show. Its essence is that several students play a scene on a given problem, while the rest of the class members observe and comment on the development of the action. Ultimately, it is necessary to achieve a comprehensive review of the problem and find the optimal algorithm for solving it.
In addition, students can complete project assignments. One person or several teachers are given a task that is performed independently. Such a group presents the results of their work in the lesson, which allows the class to formulate their opinion on the project and assess the quality of its implementation. The form of project implementation can be different: from short speeches in the lesson to the project week, and in the latter case, other classes can be involved in the discussion of the results.
The purpose of this technique is to quickly solve the problem as a result of individual or collective search. In the first case, one student writes down ideas arising from his thoughts, which are then discussed by the whole class.
However, more preference is given to collective brainstorming. After the problem is announced, the team members begin to express all the ideas that come to mind, which are then analyzed. At the first stage, it is important to score as many options as possible. During the discussion, the least effective or the wrong ones are gradually eliminated. The positive effect of the method is manifested in the fact that the impossibility of discussing ideas at the first stage eliminates the student’s fear that his thought will be ridiculed, which allows him to freely express his thoughts.
Interactive Methods in High School
Seminars at the university allow students to communicate with each other and with the teacher when discussing a given problem. However, the use of interactive teaching methods will significantly increase lecture options. In this case, everyone is equalized, and students get the opportunity to openly express their opinion on the discipline being studied. The lecture itself from material for cramming turns into information for thought.
The use of interactive teaching methods in a university allows different ways to present lecture material. It can be distributed to students in electronic form, it can be displayed on the screen and improved in the process of collective discussion, or it can become the basis of the presentation, where key provisions of the topic will be highlighted on slides.
Using video conferencing
The development of information technology allows you to use the experience of other universities during the lesson. Lately, webinars have become popular: a specialist in his field real-time explains the problem, shares his experience and answers questions raised by the audience while in another city. In addition, video conferencing makes it possible to listen to lectures by famous teachers and interact with them. Modern equipment allows not only students to see the lecturer, but also provide feedback.
A modern student is faced with an abundance of information on almost any topic, and in this stream it is sometimes difficult to find the necessary material. To avoid this, leading universities create electronic portals where the necessary information is structured according to the problems, and access to it is free due to the presence of electronic catalogs.
In addition, organizational information is posted on the portals: class schedule, teaching and methodological complex, samples of term papers and dissertations and requirements for them, "electronic dean's office".
The value of interactive methods
The experience of interactive teaching methods shows that only direct and open interaction between students and the teacher will allow them to generate interest in acquiring new knowledge, motivate them to expand existing knowledge, and lay the foundation for interpersonal communication. New information is constantly checked and confirmed by experience, which facilitates its memorization and subsequent use in practice.