Who is a speaker? This is the one whose public speech has the intended effect on his listeners. Such people are valued both in service and in friendship. However, a good storyteller is not necessarily a good speaker. Household speech is only one type of public communication. Next, we consider the types of speech in various classifications and the requirements for each of these types. This will help us answer the question of what oratory should be.
Types and functions of speech
1. By the number of participants
Depending on the number of participants in the communication (one or several), speech can be monologic and dialogical. Dialogue is built according to the scheme "conception - the main part - the ending." The replicas of its participants are interconnected and flow from one another. This type of speech is characterized by spontaneity, since the reaction of the interlocutor is not exactly known. This is its fundamental difference from the monologue. Dialogue can serve the purposes of everyday communication, business conversation , etc.
A monologue can also be spontaneous, or maybe prepared. A monologue addressed to the public should be consistent, structured. This requires additional non-linguistic means that emphasize the meaning of what was said and attract the attention of the listener (intonation, gestures, pauses). Types of speech (monologue) differ depending on its purpose: motivating, informational or persuasive.
2. In focus
There are such types of speech as internal and external. External includes the types already briefly described above (dialogue and monologue, including in writing). Inner speech is preparation for activity, it is fragmented and, like external dialogical speech, situational, not prepared. Its peculiarity is that it excludes the possibility of misunderstanding on the part of the interlocutor, and also there is no need to use additional means of strengthening what was said.
There is also an intermediate view - it is an egocentric speech, that is , it is sufficiently detailed, facing itself and not designed for the reaction of others. It can often be observed in children and even adults, if the situation requires careful consideration.
3. In shape
This is spoken and written. If we speak of oratory, we are of course interested in the oral form.
Characteristics and types of public speaking
Oratory is an external speech in the form of a monologue, designed to influence listeners. In order for a speech to achieve its goal, it must be well prepared, relying on reliable sources of information; be well-constructed, contain weighty arguments that appeal not only to logic, but also to the feelings of the audience. The content of the speech should be correlated with the situation. Non-linguistic means mentioned above also play a special role: this is the appropriate use of pauses in speech, intonational emphasis on significant parts, non-verbal signals: gesticulation, posture.
In oratory, types of speech are associated with its functions, the goals of speech. So, public communication can be:
This is a propaganda speech, speeches in parliament, at rallies. They can be both draft and explanatory in nature, are based on facts and, as a rule, are depersonalized. Contain economic and political vocabulary. If we are talking about speaking at a rally - then emotionally colored, conversational.
These are lectures, reports and speeches at the conference. Usually they are designed in a scientific style, but to achieve a greater effect, emotionally colored vocabulary can also be found. Presentations and communications should be well structured, and lectures should follow the topic and hold attention.
These are accusatory and defensive speeches. They must contain the details of the investigation, the testimonies of the witnesses, and their purpose is to prove the (non) guilty defendant.
These are solemn, congratulatory and ritual speeches, which describe the positive qualities of the "hero of the occasion."
5. The spiritual
These are sermons and speeches at spiritual meetings.
These are the main types of speech in oratory. And although not every speaker in public can and should have the gift of eloquence and / or special training, for the success of the speech you need to know what requirements speech should meet and build it in accordance with the reason and composition of the audience.