Chemistry is a fascinating science. Those who are interested not only in theory, but also try their skills in practice, know exactly what is at stake. Each student is familiar with most of the elements from the periodic table. But did everyone succeed in trying to mix reagents and conduct chemical tests on their own experience? Even today, not all modern schools have the necessary equipment and reagents, so chemistry remains a science open for independent study. Many seek to know it more deeply, conducting research at home.
No home-made man can do without nitric acid - an extremely important thing in the household. It is difficult to get the substance: you can buy it only in a specialized store where the purchase is made according to documents confirming the peaceful use of the substance. Therefore, if you are a home-made master, getting this component, most likely, will not work. Here the question arises of how to make nitric acid at home. The process does not seem to be complicated, however, the output should be a substance of a sufficient level of purity and the necessary concentration. Here, the skills of an experimental chemist cannot be dispensed with.
Where is the substance used?
The use of nitric acid is reasonable for safe purposes. The substance is used in the following spheres of human activity:
- the creation of coloring pigments;
- film manifestation;
- preparation of drugs;
- processing of plastic products;
- use in chemistry;
- fertilizer of garden and garden crops;
- dynamite production.
Pure nitric acid in unchanged form looks like a liquid substance, which when in contact with air starts to produce white fumes. Its freezing occurs already at -42 ° C, and boiling - at +80 ° C. How to remove such a substance as nitric acid with your own hands at home?
A smoky substance is obtained by the action of a sulfuric acid concentrate on sodium (potassium) nitrate (sodium (potassium) nitrate). As a result of the reaction, the desired substance and sodium hydrosulfate (potassium) are obtained. The reaction scheme looks like this: NaNO 3 + H 2 SO 4 => HNO 3 + NaHSO 4. Remember that the concentration of the obtained substance depends on the concentration of sulfuric acid before entering into the reaction.
Obtaining nitric acid at home with a lower concentration of the substance occurs in the same way, it is only necessary to replace sodium nitrate with ammonium nitrate. The chemical equation is: NH 4 NO 3 + H 2 SO 4 => ( NH 4) 2 SO 4 + HNO 3 . Note that ammonium nitrate is more affordable than potassium or sodium, because most researchers conduct a reaction based on it.
The higher the concentration of H 2 SO 4 , the more concentrated the nitric acid will be. To obtain a balanced substance, it is necessary to increase the volume of electrolyte necessary for the reaction. To achieve the desired result, in practice they use the evaporation method, which consists in a gradual decrease in the volume of the electrolyte by about 4 times from the original.
Features of the evaporation method
Sifted sand is poured onto the bottom of the dishes and a tank with electrolyte is placed. In this case, the boiling process is regulated by the valve of the gas stove, giving in or reducing the fire. The process is time-consuming, so patience is important in this matter. Experts recommend the use of boilers - glass or ceramic tubes designed for chemical experiments, including evaporation. They neutralize the formation of bubbles and reduce the power of boiling, preventing spraying of the substance. Under such conditions, it is permissible to obtain nitric acid at home with a concentration of about 93%.
Tools and reagents for the practical production of substances
To carry out the reaction, the presence of:
- concentrated H 2 SO 4 (> 95%) - 50 ml;
- ammonium nitrate, potassium, sodium;
- 100 ml capacity;
- 1000 ml container;
- glass funnel;
- water bath;
- crushed ice (can be replaced with snow or cold water);
- a thermometer.
Getting nitric acid at home, as well as carrying out any other chemical reaction, requires the observance of precautions:
- In the process of obtaining nitric acid at home, it is necessary to maintain the temperature within 60-70 ° C. If these limits are exceeded, the acid will begin to decompose.
- Vapors and gases may be released during the reaction, so be sure to use a face shield when working with acids. Hands should be protected from the sudden contact of the substance on the skin, because chemists work in rubber gloves. In large chemical plants, where a person comes into contact with hazardous substances, workers generally work in special protective suits.
Now you know how to get nitric acid in a simple reaction. Be careful with the use of such a substance and use it only for peaceful purposes.