Every gardener knows that achieving a high crop of cucumbers is not so easy, especially in open ground. The main enemy of this tasty and healthy vegetable is a disease called downy mildew. Modern chemical agents are not able to completely protect cucumbers from this aggressive infection, and the traditional method of growing them in the spread only contributes to the development of the disease. The only way out in this situation will be trellises for cucumbers. This solution has many advantages, we’ll talk about them today.
Why not upset?
Experienced growers know that the introduction of mobile infectious spores occurs through the stomata precisely from the back of the leaves - spores actively move in the drops of moisture (dew, rain spray and watering) present on the leaf. Malicious spores hibernate on the surface of the soil, from where they spray with water and fall on the lower part of the cucumber foliage.
As a result, as soon as the cucumber plants acquire the first young leaves and begin to spread along the ground, they are immediately attacked by the infection, and it is good if the plant has the strength to bring at least a meager crop of greenery. All this happens because many gardeners do not attach due importance to the nature of the plant, and in fact it is a grassy vine, having a movable antennae and a rough stalk, with the help of which it can cling to any vertical support.
Trellis for cucumbers: benefits
Growing cucumbers on trellises is
much more productive than spreading it. Firstly, the plant has the ability to move away from last year's "deposits" of infection on the ground. If even part of the spores is carried by the wind, then the lower part of the foliage will be available for spraying with protective solutions. Consequently, the problem of controlling powdery mildew is practically being solved.
Secondly, plants are much more efficiently blown by air and illuminated, so dangerous moisture disappears faster. Thirdly, the number of poor-quality (deformed, stained, etc. flawed) fruits is significantly reduced, because no contact with the ground. In addition, the total yield increases at times due to the longer fruiting of the plant. Fourthly, conditions and labor productivity are significantly improved and lightened when caring and harvesting fruits.
A site for growing cucumbers on pylons should be taken care of in advance. Soil must be enriched with organic fertilizers. Rows of trellis are best placed from north to south - this will save the plants from hard midday sunlight. The row spacing can vary from about 1.5 to 2.5 meters - this distance provides the convenience of harvesting not only manually, but also using small-sized equipment. In small household territories, this distance can be reduced to 0.8 m.
DIY trellis for cucumbers
As trellis supports, pillars are used, which can be made of various materials, for example, from pine round timber, metal or reinforced concrete columns, etc. The extreme trellis posts should be stronger than the intermediate ones, because they will carry the load of the whole row. For example, with a trellis height of 2.8 m, the diameter of the extreme supports should not be less than 50 mm, and the intermediate supports should be 35 mm. Columns for trellis for cucumbers are buried to a depth of about 60 cm. Edge, anchor supports should be installed at an angle of about 70º to the surface of the earth, deepening them by 75-80 cm. Inclined supports must be anchored with wire braces to corners of metal clogged at an angle into the ground to a depth of about 90 cm.
The maximum distance between the support posts in a row should not exceed 6 m, but if materials permit, it is better to put the supports denser. Before you make a trellis for cucumbers, you need to decide on the material. It can be a special plastic mesh stretched between two wires - upper and lower.
You can make a trellis and simply from a wire, the thickness of which should be at least 2.0 mm. In this case, the lower row of wire is pulled between the supports at a height of 15-20 cm, the next - after 70 cm, etc. A thicker wire (3.5 mm) should be used for the top row, as he will carry the main load. After planting cucumber seedlings, hemp twine is stretched next to each plant from the bottom row of wire to the top, along which the vine will move up. The trellis for cucumbers in the greenhouse is made according to the same principle.
In parallel with the construction of trellises for cucumbers, it is necessary to solve the issue of irrigation of future plants. If you are interested in a good harvest, you should not really hope for a natural watering with rain. There is a practice of irrigation with furrows, however, this method is not very convenient from the practical side, because sour soil will interfere with the care of plants and the collection of fruits.
The most rational option is drip irrigation. Even in regions with a hot climate, it is enough to lay one drip tape for watering one row of cucumbers. And if, after planting seedlings, along the trellis for cucumbers on both sides to lay strips of mulching dark film, this will help save irrigation water and prevent the growth of weeds.
About a month before planting cucumbers on a trellis, the seeds are sown in cassettes and wait for the appearance of 2-3 developed leaves. Seedlings are planted on a calendar date when the probability of frost is already absent. Young plants are arranged in a row, at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. In the process of growth, a solid wall of foliage should form, but the leaves should not be layered on top of one another.
A seedling method of growing cucumbers is also practiced, but the seeds must be prepared before sowing. Use for sowing full-bodied seeds 2-3 years ago, because they are distinguished by good germination, contribute to the formation of a larger number of female flowers, and also accelerate fruiting. If seeds of the last year's crop are used, they are preheated for 4-5 hours to +56 ... + 60 ° C or kept at +36 ... + 38 ° C for 2 months. In addition, before sowing the seeds should be calibrated for about 10 minutes in a 3% solution of sodium chloride. During the calibration process, high-quality seeds will settle to the bottom, and empty and undeveloped seeds will emerge. The selected seeds must be washed in clean running water and then treated in solutions of manganese sulfate (0.5 g per 1.0 l of water), boric acid (0.1 g per 0.3 l of water), etc. The seeds are soaked for a day, and then dried. Trace elements stimulate the vital activity of young plants and increase their resistance to diseases.
So, how to plant cucumbers on the trellis, we figured out. Now let's talk about the care of trellis plants. This process is completely uncomplicated. After planting, it is necessary to tie the cucumber stalk to the trellis, and then, as it grows, periodically curl its top into mesh cells or twine. Side shoots should also be directed there. Pinching the tops is not worth it - if they reach the top of the trellis, they need to be gently bent down and brought back into the cells of the cucumber net so that they do not hang in the wind.
It is best to collect Zelentsy early in the morning, before the onset of heat, then the fruits will remain dense, beautiful and will be able to be stored longer. Cucumbers should be stored in a cool place with high humidity, for example, in a cellar or in a refrigerator.