What does bonistics study? This is a science that studies banknotes. In addition, it is a reflection of the history of securities. Bonistics and numismatics are closely related, sometimes inseparable. Numismatics is the science of coins and material values of cultures of various peoples. It arose much earlier. But bonistics appeared only in the 70s of the XIX century.
In Russia, in ancient times, they collected paper money, but this was considered as amateurism. Since that time, some special specimens have even survived that formed the basis of Russian bonistics.
So what is bonistics? Its definition is very extensive. The word "bon" appeared in the 19th century, in France, for the name of checks, coupons and other securities. Bonistics is precisely the sphere of study of those same bonds. This is a common concept for all those who once used paper money (stocks, bonds, bank tickets, coupons).
Bonistics is a science firmly entrenched in the world of enlightened and intelligent people, as well as numismatics. In addition, this is the area of banknote collecting. So, a large collection of booms is available from the Israeli collector Gerber. It began in the distant 1962.
At all times, paper money has caused extraordinary interest in a person. The discovery of some units of notes can be called a real achievement. Collecting is a special way to preserve culture, especially in our time, when people are deprived of the desire to create. The cause of such troubles is human indifference.
Despite this, now the thirst for a return to the roots of civilization is growing every day. More than 4 thousand banknote collectors every day are looking for new opportunities to replenish their stocks. The advantage among the rest is not only rare finds, but also banknotes with typos.
Numismatics is, as we have said, a discipline that studies coins and their origin. And translated from Latin, nomisma means "coin."
Which discipline has the advantage: bonistics or numismatics? This debate continues to this day. Both sciences are important. Together they reflect the complete history of the existence of money on earth. Numismatists have always treated the Bonists liberally, while sincerely believing that banknotes are less valuable than coins.
Coins can tell a lot about the history of money. After all, they have been minted since ancient times. Moreover, they have been the only means of payment for a long time. A coin is a sign consisting of a certain metal of a round shape. In our current understanding, coins are round metal objects. On one side they have the emblem of the country of origin, and on the other - the face value. Full-fledged coins and changeable, commemorative, symbolizing the date or place of the event are issued. The word "moneta" is translated from Latin as "warning."
Numismatists are not only studying, but also collecting coins. This discipline is considered a win-win lottery. People like to collect rare coins, because they are always in price, and with each year the demand for them only increases. With the growing prevalence of numismatics, it becomes very difficult to see a truly valuable coin. Most collectors seek out rare coins in stores selling antiques, or find the same collectors and exchange valuable goods with them.
To understand how exciting it is, we present you the most interesting coins.
In the photo in the article, you can see a coin consisting of 999.9 gold samples, weighing 1000 kilograms. Denomination of 1 million dollars. It was made in Perth (Australia).
No less remarkable is the jubilee coin of 50 thousand rubles, which was made on February 1, 2010. This is 5 kilograms of pure gold.
And in the Republic of Congo they made a wooden coin, which was also a means of payment. Denomination of 5 francs. The weight of the coin is only 2.4 grams.
Russian paper notes appeared in 1769 under Catherine the Great. This happened after the manifesto of December 29, 1768, which indicated that for convenience of transportation, coins should be replaced with paper bills. But the secret reason for their release was the Empress’s desire to replenish the emptied treasury of the state at low cost. It should be said that this money was still of poor quality, but already had protection in the form of watermarks and signatures of responsible persons.
History of Russian banknotes
Banknotes - banknotes were printed at that time by special banks; the decree was created by Peter III in 1762. One was in Moscow, the second in St. Petersburg. These banks were engaged in the exchange of coins for paper money.
The bills differed from each other only in denomination, so it was easy to fake them. With what the simple people hunted. The words on the notes were scraped off and new banknote values entered. So, in 1771, the issue of 75-ruble banknotes was stopped. And their remains were withdrawn from circulation.
Paper money facilitated the calculations of people. There was a need to issue additional notes. Despite the great demand, they were released so much that their real cost began to decline. The course began to fall. However, the people had to pay to submit to the treasury precisely paper bills, which in 1814-1815 completely fell in price.
As a result of this, Russia issued new decrees to replace paper money and change their denominations. Subsequently, busts of kings, empresses were depicted on banknotes.
From revolution to the present day
In 1917, everything changed. Power in Russia has often changed. In this turbulent time, people only managed to watch the emergence of new banknotes. But the exchange of old signs for new ones was not always possible.
By the way, 1919 was an exceptional year. The Bolsheviks, who were in power by that time, aspired to communism and wanted to completely cancel the money. The people did not see a complete abolition, but they felt a shortage of them. And in 1921, banknotes began to print with a new dimension. Then there was a denomination by 1922. Old money began to be exchanged for new ones more and more often. Up until 1937. The leader of the world proletariat, Lenin V.I., was depicted on new banknotes. It was preserved on banknotes until 1993.
In early 1998, the last monetary reform took place . The denomination of 1 to 1000 significantly reduced the number of zeros on banknotes.
As you can see, bonistics is not only paper money that has become obsolete, but also a whole area of the history of each country, which reveals many interesting facts.