Many experts note that those children who did not go to kindergarten and underwent home preparation for school do not always harmoniously fit into the team of first-graders. The problem is that parents do not always have all the necessary knowledge and skills to help their beloved child learn to communicate not only with them, but also with the outside world. Therefore, it is important to pay full attention to the development of the child. In addition to physical development, we must not forget about the other aspects.
In the modern world, pedagogy and methods of preschool education are closely related. Therefore, parents should be not only faithful friends of their baby, but also his first teachers.
Many people mistakenly avoid this topic, which is why classes with kids begin inopportune. Therefore, before moving on to the theory and methodology of preschool education, it is worth considering several important stages in the formation of the personality of a child. The first years of life, the baby lives in its own world. He is just beginning to recognize a new environment that is causing him genuine amazement and fear. Gradually, the child learns to interact with objects and surrounding people. He takes the first step and pronounces the cherished “mom” and “dad”.
Experts usually divide preschool age into three stages:
- Younger. In this case, we are talking about the methodology of preschool education, which should be based on the fact that during this period the child begins to identify himself, his “I” is born. The kid learns to evaluate the attitude of others and without problems determines if the parents are happy with him or, conversely, angry. It is important to pay attention to activities aimed at developing fine motor skills. Younger preschool age lasts from 3 to 4 years.
- Average. This period lasts from 4 to 5 years. The child begins to form his own concepts and characteristics of thinking. Gradually, the baby acquires character traits and more actively manifests itself as a person. During this period, the methodology of preschool education should be aimed not only at the development of logic, thinking, but also at the development of more complex motor functions.
- Older. In this case, we are talking about children aged 5 to 7 years. This period is characterized by enhanced thinking. The child begins to realize that he has to fulfill some household chores (for example, to clean up toys, help mom, etc.). At the same time, he should be able to control his emotional state. By this age, the baby is already pretty dexterous, but he must continue to grow physically.
Programs and methods of preschool education
The general educational process primarily means certain educational activities that are combined with learning and preparation for school. Thus, this is a whole range of activities. Some parents send their children to classes in pre-school education, where teachers prepare them for further education.
Thus, the educational methodology of preschool education is fundamental. It consists of four stages. First of all, it is important to pay attention to the formation of the personality of the child. He must learn to make judgments and assess the situation. The second stage is the organization of the actions of the child. This means that the child must be able to interact with adults and peers. Even before the first trip to school, the child should already have some experience in communication.
In addition, it is important to form the right self-esteem and motivation in the child. For this, different methods of preschool education and upbringing are used. They can be successfully applied at home.
A similar methodology of teaching, pre-school education and upbringing allows you to adjust the manner of behavior of the child. A kid who is getting ready to go to school must learn to distinguish between bad and good deeds and the right emphasis. He should not behave inappropriately in society. It is important to develop respect for his parents.
Thanks to the encouragement, the positive thinking of the child is strengthened. If he experiences positive feelings while doing something good, then this will help him become a good person. It is worth considering that before the age of six children are in great need of praise, so this method is very effective. However, it is important not to develop an overly consumeristic attitude in Chad.
Therefore, you must use this method of preschool education very carefully. For example, you cannot say: "If you brush your teeth today, I will give you a new toy." It is better to wait for the moment when the baby will perform the required action and give him a small gift, as if just like that. His brain automatically correlates pleasant emotions with the fact that he brushed his teeth.
Modern methods of education in the field of preschool education, as a rule, exclude such methods of interaction with children. However, in some situations, it’s simply not possible to do otherwise. For example, if the child is hyperactive and out of control of the parents. Nevertheless, physical punishment must be completely excluded.
It is also important to consider some features of this approach. First of all, you can not scold the child for those acts that he committed a very long time. Also, preventive punishment will not lead to anything good. Sometimes, in order to prevent the baby from behaving badly, parents begin to punish him for something that he has not done at all.
Experts do not recommend the use of such methods, since parents often switch to humiliation. If they do not punish, but insult the child, then this will negatively affect his psyche.
With the development of methods of preschool education, specialists are increasingly using precisely these methods of interaction with children. In this case, we are talking about the fact that parents talk with the baby, as with an adult, explaining to him the right actions and unacceptable.
It is important to consider the individual characteristics of the behavior of the child. The conversation should be conducted in such a way that the conversation was as logical as possible for the child. No need to bump into complex demagogy and skip from one topic to another. The child must focus and understand what is required of him.
This is one of the so-called blocks of the methodology for teaching preschool education. First of all, a person needs to be formed from a child, who will be ready for educational activity. Considerable importance should also be given to the mental preparation and development of motor skills. It is worth considering these features in more detail.
If parents do not pay enough attention to this aspect, then it will be much more difficult for a child to join the educational process at school. Therefore, it is imperative that the baby from an early age be inquisitive and able to think. At the same time, attention is paid to the development of memory, speech and attention.
According to the teaching methodology in the field of preschool education, by the age of six the child should be able to draw. This means that you need to teach the child to at least repeat certain patterns. If he has a penchant for creativity, then you should not limit it. Children who draw, rather than draw, have great potential, which is recommended to develop more.
Also, before going to school, the child must learn to decorate pictures and be able to at least partially repeat the contours. This is important, since in the early years at school he will be engaged in spelling.
In addition, parents are encouraged to teach the child to learn small poems. Well, if he knows what retelling is. Therefore, you can read the child short stories and then ask to describe what he remembered.
By the age of six, children often already count at least up to 10. They know where they live, can give the surname and name of their mother and father, and understand the seasons. It is worth teaching the baby for months. Some parents even before going to school explain how to correctly determine the time on the clock.
It is easy to see that much is required from mom and dad. Parents should teach the child the basics, so that in the first grade, not all information is for him the discovery of a new world. To achieve the best results, it is recommended that you learn the basics of preschool education.
As a rule, mental development involves the use of various games of a developing nature. It is worth reading as much as possible a child of a book, and not allowing him to spend all his free time in front of a computer or with a mobile phone in his hands.
Do not forget that at school the child will be engaged not only in mental activity. You need to understand that the first 6-7 years of a child’s life is characterized by increased activity and mobility. During this period, it is very important to direct it in the right direction. As a rule, this responsibility lies with the parents. Or you can send the child to the sports section for the smallest, where the specialist will take on this mission.
If we talk about independent work with the child, then in this case it is worth paying attention to several important stages. First of all, the child should understand what constitutes recovery. Experts recommend practicing hardening procedures, prevention of flat feet, etc.
By the age of 6, it is worth teaching a child to swim, run, jump and the simplest games on the sports ground. This will help to form his stamina, dexterity and quick reaction. Since children at this age are themselves quite active, it will not be difficult to attract them to such activities. For example, parents can start doing sports or outdoor wellness with children. It will also help strengthen family ties.
It will be useful to buy sports equipment. If a child has a horizontal bar, a jump rope and a ball in his room, then he will be able to engage on his own, without the participation of adults. However, the area of the children's room does not always allow you to place everything you need there. In this case, you can record the child in the sports section.
Physical education helps discipline a child. He gets used to the daily routine, begins to understand what a healthy lifestyle is. At the same time, strong-willed qualities are developed. The child begins to realize that not everything goes so easily. In order to achieve this goal, it is necessary to make considerable efforts. All this has a positive effect on the formation of the personality of the future student.
It is also worth considering that today obsolete methods of preschool education may occur. Retraining of specialists has become very urgent, since what worked 50 years ago is not so effective in the age of computer technology. Therefore, it is worth considering several methods that are successfully applied today.
Maria Montessori system
This program is designed for preschoolers from 3 years old, but modern experts say that it is acceptable even at an earlier age. The main principle of the system is based on the fact that the child is given complete freedom. The child is free to choose what is interesting to him and spend his free time as he wishes.
But this does not mean permissiveness. It is about the fact that the child only thinks that he is not forced, and he is engaged in something. This means that parents are required to quietly push him to one or another activity. In this case, he will not have the impression that something is being imposed on him.
Although this technique appeared a century ago, it has been successfully applied today. According to this system, children under 7 years old are not burdened with learning activities. The emphasis is on creativity. This means that a child learns to draw, sing and play musical instruments to a greater extent than to study writing and reading. It is believed that this allows you to achieve the desired results, but without physical or mental strain for the child.
Cubes of Zaitsev
This technique is aimed at teaching reading and writing. Thanks to this, the kids show the first successful results at the age of 2-3 years. The system is extremely simple. Parents get 52 cubes, on each of which letters, numbers, etc. are written. Thanks to this, the baby begins to add words very quickly and quietly. If you additionally hang warehouses on the wall, the child will repeat what he saw. In addition, this is a positive development for the development of motor skills. If you regularly deal with cubes, then the result will not be long in coming.
Thus, parents can independently prepare their child for school. If mom and dad will devote enough time to raising the baby, then he will sit at the school desk already prepared. If both parents work, it is recommended to consider the possibility of training with specialists. In preschool institutions, children receive all the necessary basic knowledge. At the same time, the child will communicate with peers and learn to establish friendships.