Child development is always in the first place for a loving and caring parent. And when a child is only 3-4 years old, then parents always try to use all kinds of educational games for children 4 years old. A child at this age already attends kindergarten. Therefore, the development of cognitive research activities of preschoolers ensures the continuity of the goals of the family and kindergarten.
The value of developmental activities
Any activity of a child teaches something or reinforces existing skills. The same applies to cognitive research activities in the 2nd younger group. In the process of its implementation, the child satisfies his natural curiosity and interest in experimenting with objects of the world and knowledge of their properties.
The purpose of cognitive research is the formation of initial ideas about materials that can be used to make objects. Children learn the purpose of the items and learn to use them correctly.
The tasks of this activity of children aged 3-4 years are as follows:
- create a problem game situation for the child, influence his entry into it (the main role remains for the teacher);
- to intensify the desire of children to solve the existing problem situation and look for new ways out of it (the teacher takes an active part in this);
- contribute to the development of a more thorough study of objects and objects of the world.
The greatest attention is drawn to the properties of natural objects that children “discover” for themselves in the process of conducting experiments in cognitive research activities. Children mainly study the properties of water, sand, clay, paper, stones, plants and more.
The means of cognition of the world
Cognitive and research activities of preschool children are based on observation. The child is happy to observe the experiences of the teacher in the kindergarten or parents at home. They may also be interested in observing nature and its phenomena, for example, the growth of trees and shrubs, the study of leaves and fruits.
Cognitive and research activities in the 2nd younger group are associated with actions and objects. In order to study the subject, its purpose and properties, the child performs various manipulations with it.
Using the primary means of cognition of the world, the child develops all aspects of the personality, there is interest and a desire to know the world. The child begins to realize the uniqueness of life, even in its most wonderful manifestations. During the implementation of cognitive research activities of preschool children, the need to preserve, respect and protect nature is brought up.
Activities of young children
Educational games for children 4 years old should be based on those activities of children with which they learn and learn this world. As you know, in children at this age, the main is visual-figurative thinking. Therefore, the principle of visibility in this case is simply necessary for teaching young children.
In the learning process, it is advisable to use thematic conversations involving pictures, illustrations, clippings, templates. This helps the formation of more complete images in the memory of the child.
Experiences are also popular in learning. This type of activity combines visibility, and literature, and practicality. Children can study the properties and signs of objects with their own hands. During the experiment, the child develops all mental processes, in particular, thinking. The most necessary operations — analysis, synthesis, and comparison — develop best under such conditions.
Another activity of children that helps in the development of the surrounding space is a game. This is the simplest and most understandable form for children to learn. In the game, in an unobtrusive way, the baby loses situations that help clarify the properties and purposes of the objects.
All of these activities help the child understand this complex world.
Forms of research
The implementation of cognitive research activity occurs through several forms:
In the first three years, an experimental study of the world is basic for kids. That is why children like to experience everything and often use it for other purposes to find out its capabilities. Experimentation as a method meets all the necessary requirements and satisfies the leading forms of thinking of a preschooler.
Stage-by-stage children's experiment
- The problem statement and research objectives in the form of a problem situation.
- Making a forecast and possible outcome.
- Conducting safety briefings and clarifying the rules for the safe conduct of the experiment.
- Organizational issues (division of children into subgroups, choice of responsible and executing).
- Conducting an experiment (together with the teacher).
- Evaluation of the results of the study.
- Fixing them in the protocol.
- Writing conclusions.
Organization of a research environment in a group
Some experiments are carried out on the street and for their carrying out no additional attributes are needed. For example, to observe migratory birds or swelling of the kidneys in the spring. But there are also such experiments that require additional materials for their implementation. It is for constant access and the possibility of conducting an experiment at the first need that mini-laboratories are created in group rooms where the necessary attributes are stored.
Mini-laboratories, in turn, are also divided into certain zones. Namely:
- zone of permanent exhibition of the final results of the study;
- place for storage of devices;
- living area for growing plants;
- containers for storing natural and waste material;
- test area;
- a place for unstructured materials (water, sand).
Features of the organization of the experiment in the younger group
Since the age contingent of children of the second younger group ranges from 3-4 years, that is, certain features of the construction of classes.
Children of this age can establish the simplest cause-effect relationships. And therefore, when the question “Why?” Arises, they try to answer it on their own. After all trial and error, not all children resort to adult help. This is due to the fact that stubbornness and independence prevail in children at this age. At this point, you also have to be very careful, because if the child gives the wrong answer to the question “Why?” and, therefore, incorrectly establishes cause-effect relationships, then in his memory incorrect ideas about the world around him may be fixed.
In the younger preschool years, cognitive research activity is based on observing animate and inanimate nature through experiments and experiments. For children, the experiment is a confirmation of their understanding of the world. Indeed, without practical experience, all the concepts in their head remain only dry abstractions.
Experimentation is one of the ways a child sees a picture of the world, which will be based on his personal observations and experiences. In addition to informativeness, experimentation fuels the child's interest in research.
This method has obvious advantages:
- the reality of ideas about the studied object and its relationship with the environment;
- enrichment of memory and development of all mental processes of the child;
- speech development;
- accumulation of mental skills;
- the formation of the independence of the child, the ability to set goals and achieve them, to seek a solution to problem situations;
- development of the emotional-volitional sphere of the child, creative abilities, labor skills;
- health promotion and increased immunity by increasing motor activity.
At the age of four, experiments and experiments are similar to a story game. This implies the active practice of the child. The teacher sets him a specific plot, which leads him to the necessary experimental actions to solve the task. A specific role may also be suggested, which involves experimenting with the child in certain conditions. This is used in a collective experiment.
Since the organization of cognitive research activities in a preschool institution should be appropriate to program requirements, that is, its planning is provided. It spelled out the topics of classes with children. They can be held both in the group room and on the street. All aspects of the activities of a small child are affected.
The topics of cognitive research depend on seasonal changes in nature. In the fall it can be “Study of autumn leaves,” “Preparing animals for winter,” etc. In winter, it is “Determining the temperature of snow melting,” “Ice freezing,” etc. Spring topics will be: “Study of kidney swelling.” on trees "," Growing flowers ", etc.
In the summer, classes on cognitive and research activities are usually not conducted, since many children do not attend preschool institutions on the occasion of vacations. But this does not mean that the development of children in this period stops. In the summer, this responsibility lies with the parents.
The following activities may be included in the plan of cognitive and research activities of children in a preschool institution:
- “Planting onions and monitoring its development”;
- "The study of stones";
- “Study of tree branches”;
- "Autumn leaves";
- “To the children about the animals”;
- “I have a kitten”;
- "Autumn is golden";
- "The Sorceress Voditsa";
- "Migratory birds";
- "In the courtyard of my grandmother," etc.
Features of classes
Cognitive-research activity in the 2nd younger group involves conducting classes with children. However, there are changes in their structure. Just like other program classes, it has certain tasks. Very often spelled out are the actions that should be carried out during the lesson.
The stages of the study imply the sequential implementation of the actions prescribed in the tasks. Tasks of such a plan are not carried out every day, since they are aimed at a long study of the topic. They prescribe the results of the work of children and their further actions.
If we compare these classes with ordinary frontal or subgroup planned classes, we can see that the synopsis is much shorter, it does not trace the main structural components of the organizational moment, the main and final parts. However, a prolonged focus during the day can be noted. If a planned lesson lasts a maximum of 45 minutes, then cognitive research activities in the 2 younger groups can be traced in regimen moments throughout the day.
Let's give an example of a lesson. In the fall, cognitive research is based on changes in nature and the animal world. Children learn the signs of autumn and animal behavior.
Theme of the lesson: “Migratory birds”.
- Realized tasks: familiarizing children with the general concept of “migratory birds” and identifying birds that belong to this category.
- Material and equipment: illustrated card index “Migratory and wintering birds”, didactic material (series of handouts “migratory birds”).
- Morning: study of albums, illustrations in books, encyclopedias.
- Conversations with children during the day: “What kind of birds do you know?”, “The structure of birds”, “Bird feeding”.
- Educational and didactic games: “One-to-Many”, “Insert a Missed Word”, “Guess”, “Whose Body Part?”, “Who Looks Like”.
- Individual work: add split pictures with Lera, Bird's Lotto with Zakhar.
- Walk: observations of migratory birds, rain and wind, trees without leaves, clothes of passers-by.
- An experimental experiment: “We build a hill of loose sand”, “Why does sand run away?”, “Footprints in the sand”, “Look at the grains of sand”, “Blind of wet sand”.
- Evening: educational and didactic games “Guess the bird”, “Find the same bird”, “Find the right color”, “Collect the pyramid”.
- Reading: A. Barto “Do you need a magpie?”, E. Blaginina “Fly away, fly away”, E. Trutneva “Galka”, O. Driez “Own weather”, I. Tokmakova “Pigeons”, Elgen E. “Bird”.
Result: knowledge and ability to classify migratory and wintering birds, on the way home, discuss them with parents.
Developing classes for children in the 2nd younger group should be organized taking into account the visibility and age characteristics of children. For this, certain conditions must be met:
- the group must have toys of all kinds and sizes;
- the materials from which they are made must have various properties, characteristics and qualities;
- the attributes of the games should be fully equipped (for children at this age the ability to use substitute objects or play some actions mentally has not yet been formed);
- gaming equipment should not be “outgrowing”, but should correspond to a certain age.
Compliance with these rules contributes to the multifaceted development of children and the fulfillment of their needs in exploring the world around them.
Despite the many necessary toys and benefits, it is necessary to create a place in the group for the comfort and solitude of the child. There, he can calmly put his thoughts in order and consolidate the information received during the day.
Perhaps in this corner the child will want to conduct some kind of research experience. That is why it is recommended to combine this corner with a corner of nature. By the way, for its design, you can use those flowers that children grow in the process of cognitive research.
Plants, especially those to which the child put his hand, add peace to him. It is also recommended to place games with water and sand in such corners. When the children in the classroom study their properties, they will be pleased to independently repeat this experience in a corner of solitude.
Furniture in this corner should be soft and comfortable, conducive to a quiet study of new characteristics of objects. To increase the educational effect of this area, it is recommended to place albums and magazines with birds, animals and insects there. For example, if this week you are considering the properties and signs of winter, you can put an illustrated album with paintings by famous artists painting winter landscapes on a coffee table in the corner.
In a calm environment, any information is better remembered.