When building a house, an equally important stage is the arrangement of an attic to increase living space. True, first you will have to build a staircase that will help to connect two adjacent floors. And you can do it yourself.
Choosing the location of the future design
Before you build a mansard staircase with your own hands, you need to choose the best place for it. Usually, the entrance to the attic is made from the hall of the building or living room, however, if the room is open, then it can be done from the street.
An outside mansard staircase made by oneself is considered an excellent option for suburban estates, as it allows you to save space inside the house. Another similar design is suitable for those who plan to permanently reside in the attic. Stairs made of wood or metal with luxurious lace railings will not be able to spoil the appearance of the house. On the contrary, they will give it a European look.
The only drawback of external structures is that they will have to be constantly tinted and treated with anti-corrosion agents. In addition, it will be necessary to install an anti-slip coating on the steps.
The self-made inner staircase to the attic floor is a more common design, since it is more convenient to use it. In addition, in cold weather, one does not have to climb to the attic across the street. Such a design inside the house is able to decorate any interior, especially if it has an original and attractive appearance. The disadvantages of this method of moving up can only be attributed to the fact that such a structure can take up a lot of living space.
But the main thing is that the self-made attic staircase meets the following requirements:
- did not take up much of the necessary and useful area;
- when choosing its location, the total floor height was taken into account;
- had a comfortable and safe lift.
Varieties of structures for lifting and lowering to the attic
An attic staircase (with your own hands), the types of which can differ not only in the place of position, but also in the type of construction, has its advantages and disadvantages.
A folding type staircase, as a rule, is done if they are rarely going to use the attic space, otherwise it will wear out instantly and constantly require expensive maintenance and repair. The main advantage of such an attic staircase is the simplicity of design.
Screw constructions are usually mounted in houses with a limited area. They have low rates of convenience and safety of lifting. On top of that, the spiral staircase should not be installed if the elderly and children live in the house, since it is difficult to move around.
A simple flight of stairs is very popular. Such designs are considered the most durable and reliable, in addition, they differ from others in their attractive appearance and high safety.
Material selection for future design
It is always necessary to focus on the interior design of the premises when purchasing the material from which the attic staircase will be made with its own hands. The installation instructions will help you quickly assemble and install it. But remember that it is unlikely that a metal or glass structure will fit into a room decorated with a lining, and a wooden one - into a room decorated in a modern style.
Most often, attic stairs are made of metal or wood. But stainless steel structures are still more popular because they have a long service life and are perfectly combined with other materials. But wooden stairs are easier to do with their own hands due to the ease of processing.
Another suitable option for the attic is a staircase made of concrete. True, it will be difficult and difficult to do it yourself, besides, additional decoration costs will be required. However, if the house has a large hall, then such a staircase will fit perfectly. Concrete structures have a long service life, are easily repaired and cope with high loads.
Making a hatch for a ladder
First of all, you need to mark on the attic floor to avoid getting on the beam. In the absence of flooring, it is much easier to do, but not always overlapping elements are available for inspection, because most often during construction the ceiling of the upper floor is immediately waterproofed and insulated. If it is impossible to reach them, then to determine the best location you will have to use a long thin drill. To find out the contour of the future hatch, it is necessary to make several holes in the ceiling. Then it remains only to draw a surface.
To cut the flooring you will need a circular saw. In this case, it is desirable to use discs with teeth made of hard alloys, since fasteners often come across on the way. As a result of the work, a through hole should be obtained, and it will become the entrance to the attic.
Calculation of the size and number of steps
A self-made mansard staircase is a rational solution that should begin with preliminary calculations. For comfortable operation, it is recommended to adhere to the following indicators:
- the width of the step should not exceed 28-30 cm, and the height - 14-16 cm;
- the width of the staircase should be at least 1 meter;
- the size of the running steps in the narrow part should be about 20 cm.
If you can’t do the calculation yourself, it’s best to contact the design firm for help.
Tilt angle calculation
When constructing the attic stairs, it is necessary to adhere to the standards. Therefore, you should make a vertical passage measuring no more than 2 meters from the ceiling to the step. This also applies to the distance between the top hatch of the attic and the step.
The angle of the structure depends on the height of the lift. For example, a staircase with a slope of less than 35 ° takes up a lot of free space. But in a design with an inclination of more than 55 ° it will be very difficult to move, because you have to go down with your back forward. It is better to design a functional element that provides vertical connections with a slope of 35-45 °. It turns out the most comfortable is the self-made attic staircase made in this way.
How to make kosour?
The main details of the staircase are the braces. As these load-bearing beams, boards with sawn grooves for steps can be used. Their thickness should be approximately 50 mm and width approximately 250 mm. Most often, two beams are used, but when the width of the stairs is more than 120 cm, an additional kosour is installed.
First of all, you need to pull the twine along the wall from the ceiling of the attic to the place where the staircase begins. Then, changing the slope of the rope, you should check the number of proposed steps and the length of the supporting beam, checking with the calculations.
Then you need to measure the angles that occurred between the flooring and twine, and also between the rope and the ceiling. At the place where the kosour is fixed to the ceiling, a protrusion of at least 10 cm should be left to fix the structure to the attic.
After that, the kosour is fixed to the surface of the wall and the points of attachment of the steps are marked on it. To determine the vertical and horizontal lines under the seats should use the construction level. The board must be detached from the wall and recessed to make marks. It is necessary to ensure that the cuts are smooth, and the groove level is suitable for the device steps. The second kosour is cut out similarly to the first.
DIY mansard staircase: installation
First, the bottom of the staircase is mounted on the bar. Then the supporting beams are fixed to it, and at the top, spikes are inserted into the recesses, previously lubricated with carpentry glue. The resulting structure is connected with metal corners. To strengthen the attic stairs, threaded rods are usually used . Using these fasteners, additional support beams are connected in several places.
Installation of steps
They should be installed from the bottom tread. Fix the steps using self-tapping screws. Joints must be treated with wood glue.
When installing the riser on the back of the staircase, the treads are screwed. After that, the braids are sewn to the top, and the side line of the steps should be ennobled with a board or plywood.
If the attic staircase, made by yourself, has a width of more than 120 cm, then the railing on it is not needed. If you want to make them easy. To do this, vertical racks are fixed to the beams with bolts, and then fences are already attached to them. The optimum railing height is about 85 cm.