World statistics show that approximately 500 million people on our planet are people with disabilities (HIA). This term implies the presence of mental, sensory or motor defects. 150 million children stand out from the total mass. Although modern medicine has stepped far forward, and experts are making every possible effort, a slow but steady increase in this number is observed annually.
If you rely on the nature of the violations, you can understand that some of them are treatable in the process of development of the child, while others are only compensated, and obvious signs are smoothed out. The teacher’s work with the child, the development of his skills and abilities, as well as further progress in learning, depend on the complexity and nature of the violations. In this regard, AOPs are being developed for children with disabilities . What is it, consider further.
Children with disabilities
If we consider the main classification of disabilities, the following violations should be highlighted:
- a disorder in behavior or communication;
- auditory impairment;
- visual disturbances;
- with speech dysfunctions;
- with changes in the musculoskeletal system;
- with mental retardation;
- with a delay in mental development;
- complex violations.
Adapted educational programs for children with disabilities are necessary as correctional schemes for the education and upbringing of such children. Schemes help to reduce the degree of violation or even get rid of defects. For example, in the training of children with visual defects, special games are used that improve the perception of this analyzer.
The essence of the adapted educational program
The modern pedagogical industry, or rather, its theory and practice, is undergoing significant changes. There is a change in the educational paradigm in the field of special and general education. Attention is now focused on adapting educational programs to the individual characteristics of each child.
Adapted educational programs for children with disabilities are unique programs created specifically for children with health restrictions. The developed documents take into account the peculiarities of violations and psychophysical development, the individual capabilities of the child.
AOP for children with disabilities ensures the correction of a child’s developmental disabilities, as well as his adaptation to public life.
AOP for special children
An adapted education program is being created for children with mental and physical disabilities, specifically to determine the goals and content of the pedagogical process, especially their disclosure in subjects. In addition, the pedagogical techniques necessary for the direct educational process are determined.
According to subject programs, working documents are also created. Now they are compiled in accordance with the federal state educational standard. The program spells out the goals and objectives of studying a particular subject, as well as criteria for assessing the knowledge and abilities of students with disabilities.
An individual curriculum is also drawn up, which helps to establish the required number of hours allocated to certain teachers.
Goals of the adapted educational program
AOP for children with disabilities in schools and kindergartens guarantee the implementation of a full-fledged educational process. At the same time, the correctional directions of the pedagogical process are preserved, which can be changed by finalizing teaching methods and techniques.
AOP goals for children with disabilities include:
- Correction of violations and defects, overcoming poor progress and other problems.
- Rehabilitation of the child, that is, bringing him to public life.
- Development of internal motivation and stimulation of a child with disabilities.
Educational objectives for children with disabilities
To solve the main educational tasks of AOP for children with disabilities, it is necessary:
- To create conditions for the correction or smoothing of existing violations in the process of development, training and adaptation of the child (using various pedagogical approaches).
- To create conditions for a child with certain disabilities to receive the necessary knowledge in all subjects that have a practical focus.
- To create conditions for comfortable development of the child’s personality in all educational areas, its adaptation in society.
- To form a general culture of the student’s personality by mastering at least the minimum from the education program.
- To create conditions for the formation of spiritual and moral qualities of the individual.
- Create conditions for the formation of the makings of a healthy lifestyle, gaining knowledge about the importance of health.
Advantage of adapted program
The content of AOP for children with disabilities is compiled based on the individual characteristics of each student. Training in these programs is developmental and corrective in nature. In addition, additional remedial exercises that complement the main program are taken into account. They are necessary to overcome problems and difficulties in the process of teaching children with disabilities.
These classes include AOP for children with disabilities. DOEs are integrating such programs into their curricula. Additional classes help to successfully promote the general development of some children, correct their shortcomings, psychophysical development, and also fill in the existing knowledge gaps.
Individual lessons can be carried out by a psychologist or subject teacher, as well as a speech therapist, a pathologist and other specialists.