"Sable" is a fairly common car in Russia. In fact, this is the "younger brother" of GAZelle. This machine has been produced since the late 90s. The suspension at Sobol is similar to that of GAZelevskaya. Front can be springs or coil springs. But on the back of the "Sable" installed a pure spring, dependent suspension. She behaves harshly in the pits. In addition, when fully loaded, the machine sags a lot. How to solve this problem? Many decide to install air suspension. "Sable" 4x4, the cross-country characteristics of which are comparable to a jeep, also undergoes such tuning. Well, let's look at the features of this suspension and find out how it is installed.
The air suspension is an alternative to the classic suspension, where springs or springs act as elastic elements. On some machines, it is factory installed. But GAZ cars are not included in this list.
Therefore, the system has to be mounted abnormally. The air suspension installed on the Sable (you can see a photo of it in our article) not only allows you to expand the technical characteristics of the minibus, but also makes it possible to adjust the clearance right on the go. Such a system is controlled from the cab.
What does it give?
Why air suspension is placed on the "Sable" 4x4. The technical characteristics of this car do not allow you to take on board more than 770 kilograms. If the load is above normal, the suspension will hit the chippers - impacts from the pits will be transmitted directly to the frame. It's not safe. But how to increase the carrying capacity without the classic increase in the number of leaf springs? Now this can be done with the help of air balloons.
Another plus of this suspension is its softness. With springs it will not work to ensure such a smooth ride as with air cylinders. The machine is heavily "kidding" on bumps, which, undoubtedly, is displayed on the comfort of control and on the condition of the transported cargo. If the "Sable" goes unloaded, the cylinders can be lowered (but not lower than the minimum norm - we will talk about this at the end of the article). The pendant will be soft. With classic springs, such a “maneuver” cannot be made.
There are several types of pneumatic suspensions:
- Single-circuit. The cheapest and most popular type. It is mounted on one axis (usually the rear). Commonly used on light commercial vehicles.
- Bypass. In this case, four cylinders are mounted for each wheel. Such a system involves independent adjustment of the clearance level and stiffness of the pillows on the front and rear axles.
- Four-circuit. As in the previous case, the car is equipped with four airbags. However, due to the presence of additional valves and lines, the pressure can be adjusted on each pillow individually. Typically, such a system is not put on commercial vehicles. Four-circuit air suspension on the "Gazelle Sable" will cost more than 80 thousand rubles. It is very expensive. However, such a system is present on many premium cars - Audi, BMW and Mercedes.
What to choose on "Sable"?
What air suspension on the "GAZ Sable" is better to put? Owner reviews say that the best option is to install a single-circuit system. The cost of a set of such air suspension on the "Sable" is 15 thousand rubles. If there are springs on the minibus and in front, they can be supplemented with air balloons too. In this case, for the front air suspension "Sable" will have to pay 10 thousand rubles. This will be a dual-circuit system.
What is noteworthy, the equipment for these products is the same. It differs only in the number of brackets and pneumatic elements. In addition to them, the kit includes:
- Receiver (average capacity - about five liters).
- Fittings, footwork.
- Airways. Typically, the diameter of such tubes is 6 millimeters.
- Protective corrugated sleeve.
- Swap nipple.
- Solenoid valves
- Control unit (can be understaffed with an arrow gauge).
- Coupling elements.
- Hardware (bolts, nuts, washers).
Let's look at the technical characteristics of the air springs that are installed on the "Sable":
- The composition of the elastic elements is a rubber mixture with nylon cord. The latter is covered in three layers. The pillow itself is a triple bellows.
- The diameter of the cylinder is from 12 to 13.5 centimeters, depending on the pressure.
- The minimum height under load is 9.5 centimeters.
- The maximum height is 24.5 centimeters.
- Working pressure - from two to eight atmospheres.
- The maximum pressure to failure is 25 atmospheres.
- Holes for fasteners - stud (three pieces) and fitting.
- The lifting force of one pneumatic element is more than 850 kilograms.
Thus, the total load capacity of "Sable" easily doubles. But it is worth remembering that the load is removed only from the suspension elements. The axle, engine and gearbox will suffer severe wear. Therefore, do not be zealous with overloads.
The air suspension installed on the "Sable" has the following standard size: 140/3. The minimum working pressure is 0.5 bar. This is a prerequisite without which the long-term performance of the pillow cannot be guaranteed. Otherwise, when hitting bumps, the material of the air element will be damaged. The range of operating temperatures is from minus 30 to plus 45 degrees Celsius. In such conditions, reliable and high-quality operation of the elastic elements is guaranteed. But there are some rules that should be followed during operation. We will consider them at the end of the article, but for now we will tell you how the air suspension is installed on the Sable.
Going air spring at a special site. It consists of several metal plates tightly fixed to each other at different angles. A triple bellows is installed in the space between the rear axle (the so-called stocking) and the frame. The design is as follows:
For fastening pillows with pads, bolted joints are used. In the upper part, the platform is connected to the frame. Next, air hoses are connected to each pillow. They are carried towards the compressor, securing to the frame with screeds. It is desirable to install the compressor in the cabin. How to carry hoses into the cab? You do not need to drill holes for this. Sobol already has technological cutouts. Laying elements in the cabin is as in the photo below:
Nipples shown here. From them we connect to the compressor itself. It is advisable that the latter be equipped with a receiver. This will allow you to quickly pump air into the pillows without involving the motor in the work. Solenoid valves are installed near the receiver. They will pass air into one or two pillows at once. The compressor and valves are powered by a 12 V network. It is advisable to use an additional fuse in the circuit. This will eliminate the failure of the compressor in case of high voltage.
The final stage is the installation of the control unit. It can be installed on the front panel or under the seat. It is desirable that he be in a conspicuous place. You can use the technological plug for this, which is on the center console.
In order for the air suspension on the Sobol to last as long as possible, you need to adhere to some operating rules. So, the manufacturer does not recommend using the system when the pressure of the pillows is below 0.5 atmospheres. Do not exceed the maximum permissible norm. Ideally, cushions should be used at a pressure of one to eight atmospheres.
Once every six months, check the system for leaks. Diagnostics of pillows is made similarly to check of the old cameras of tires. It is necessary to spray a soap solution on the surface and monitor for the presence of bubbles. If the pillows "poison", this can adversely affect the compressor resource. He will be constantly at work.
In winter, treat the pillows with silicone. As the temperature decreases, the rubber material becomes harder. Even in the absence of dirt (the presence of which on the cylinder is undesirable), significant friction occurs. To eliminate stress, use silicone in the form of an aerosol once a month. This will significantly extend the life of the pillows and provide elasticity to the rubber shell.
These were the basic rules for operating air springs. Adhering to them, you will ensure long and reliable operation of the entire pneumatic system.
So, we found out what air suspension is, how it is installed on the GAZ Sobol car and what types it happens. This is a very useful type of tuning.