Tomato: chemical composition, calorie content, benefits, harm and nutritional value

From childhood, we are taught to give preference to fruits and vegetables, as they contain a huge amount of nutrients necessary for growth. Vitamins, minerals and many elements in the composition contribute to the normalization of the work of all systems of the human body. A lot of nutrients are also found in tomatoes. The chemical composition of red vegetables is represented by a huge number of different elements, ranging from proteins, fats and carbohydrates to acids, vitamins and minerals. Read more about what is contained in fragrant tomatoes with a sweet and sour taste, how they are useful and whether they can cause harm, we will tell in this article.

Chemical composition

Cherry tomatoes

In 100 g of tomato, about 92 g is water. Also, the chemical composition of fresh tomato is represented by such substances:

  • From 0.5 to 1.1 g of proteins, including non-essential and essential amino acids.
  • From 0.1 to 0.3 g of pectin substances.
  • About 0.2 g of fat. Tomato seeds contain 17-29 g of oil.
  • From 0.1 to 0.2 g of hemicellulose.
  • From 0.5 to 0.9 g of fiber.
  • 5 g of carbohydrates, including mono- and disaccharides.
  • From 0.2 to 0.9 g of organic acids, including citric, oxalic, malic, tartaric and succinic.

Vitamins in Tomatoes

Useful properties of tomatoes

The chemical composition of the tomato is secreted by a large number of vitamins, each of which is necessary for the body for the stable operation of a system. Most of it is ascorbic acid. Vitamin C has beneficial effects on connective and bone tissues, is an excellent antioxidant and takes part in metabolic processes. A little less in the composition of choline. This is vitamin B4, known to mankind as a neurotransmitter of acetylcholine, into which it is synthesized when it enters the body. This substance, in turn, favorably affects the nervous system, and also participates in the carbohydrate metabolism. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine regulates the level of insulin in the body and has a beneficial effect on the liver, helping its cells to start regeneration processes. Finally, vitamin B4 protects the myocardium from damage.

A lot of the chemical composition of tomato and niacin. Better known as the vitamin B3, it takes part in carrying out carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism in cells. Niacin is important for tissue respiration, and is also valued as a regulator of redox processes. It is directly involved in the digestive system, helping to break down food, synthesizes sex hormones and even helps to suppress the proliferation of malignant neoplasms.

Tocopherol has a beneficial effect on the circulatory system, promotes tissue regeneration and is an excellent antioxidant. In general, it is a beauty vitamin, since it positively affects the condition of the skin, preventing the appearance of senile pigmentation and participating in the formation of collagen and elastic fibers. Vitamin E is also useful during pregnancy because it promotes the development of the placenta. And pyridoxine is one of the main substances involved in metabolism. Vitamin B6 positively affects the central and peripheral nervous system, and also prevents the development of cancer.

Thiamine regulates the transmission of nerve impulses and maintains a water-salt balance. In addition, vitamin B1 is involved in the processes of blood formation and digestion. Riboflavin, or vitamin B2, is needed for the formation of red blood cells and normal thyroid function, and beta-carotene is a powerful antioxidant that positively affects the quality of hair and skin.

Folic acid in the chemical composition of tomatoes is necessary for normal cell division, the development of all organs and tissues. Vitamin K1 helps to eliminate toxins and other harmful substances from the body, increasing life expectancy, and biotin plays a crucial role in metabolic processes, participates in the biosynthesis of hormones and is necessary for the synthesis of beneficial intestinal microflora.

Macronutrients rich in tomatoes

The benefits of tomatoes

Macronutrients are another important part of the chemical composition of tomatoes. The nutritional value of a product is determined, among other things, by such important substances:

  • Sodium - is a catalyst for chemical processes, maintains water and alkaline balance in the body.
  • Potassium - maintains an acid-base balance.
  • Silicon - is involved in the formation of epithelial and connective tissue.
  • Chlorine - necessary for the formation of gastric juice.
  • Sulfur - takes part in the formation of protein, is a component of amino acids.
  • Phosphorus - is part of the bones and tooth enamel.
  • Calcium - a building material for teeth and skeleton, is involved in the processes of blood coagulation and secretion of hormones.
  • Magnesium - regulates the transmission of nerve impulses, it is important for the stable operation of the musculoskeletal system.

Trace elements in a tomato

Nutrition Facts of Tomatoes

Speaking about the energy value and chemical composition of tomatoes, one can not help but mention trace elements. Among them:

  • Selenium - participates in redox processes and is an integral element of more than 30 vital biologically active compounds of the body.
  • Iodine - is part of the thyroid hormones.
  • Vanadium - participates in the processes of blood formation and respiration, is important for the formation of teeth and bones.
  • Nickel - is involved in enzymatic processes.
  • Iron is important for breathing.
  • Molybdenum - an important component of tissue respiration, supports the immune system.
  • Chromium - takes part in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids.
  • Cobalt - participates in blood formation processes, helps the liver and nervous system.
  • Fluoride - found in bones and tooth enamel.
  • Manganese - supports the work of the sex glands and the process of hematopoiesis.
  • Beryllium is important for metabolic processes.
  • Aluminum - provides the establishment of bonds with nitrogen and oxygen, is actively involved in the regeneration processes.
  • Lithium - beneficially affects the nervous system and neurochemical processes in the brain.
  • Boron - is found in human blood, as well as in bone and muscle tissues.
  • Barium - Regulates smooth muscle contractions.
  • Copper - is involved in protein metabolism.
  • Zinc - is involved in the synthesis of hormones, it is necessary for the male reproductive and reproductive systems.
  • Rubidium - stimulates the nervous and cardiovascular system.
  • Germanium - delivers oxygen to tissues, protects the body from foreign substances, has a beneficial effect on the digestive system and delays the development of malignant neoplasms.

Essential Amino Acids

Homemade tomatoes

The chemical composition of tomatoes is also represented by amino acids. Almost all of them (interchangeable and irreplaceable) are part of proteins, participate in their formation, as well as in various biochemical processes. Indispensable include:

  • phenylalanine;
  • lysine;
  • leucine;
  • valine;
  • isoleucine;
  • threonine;
  • histidine;
  • tryptophan;
  • methionine.

Essential Amino Acids

This list includes the following substances:

  • proline;
  • glutamic acid;
  • cystine;
  • aspartic acid;
  • glycine;
  • serine;
  • alanine;
  • arginine;
  • tyrosine.

Useful properties of tomatoes for humans

Properties of Tomatoes

If you study the chemical composition of tomatoes, the nutritional value of a vegetable for the body becomes fully understood. Regular (but in moderation!) Eating tomatoes has an immunostimulating, tonic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and diuretic effect on the body. Vegetable helps to reduce nervous excitability, serves as a stimulant of brain activity, positively affects the work of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys. It supports the cardiovascular system, monitors the level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood. In general, not a vegetable, but a real storehouse of nutrients.

Can a tomato hurt?

Yes, if you eat vegetables in large quantities. Do not overeat tomatoes, in this case, you can not only not wait for positive results, but also cause a negative effect. It is expressed by an increased likelihood of spasms of the gallbladder and even the formation of kidney stones. Also, with extreme caution, tomatoes should be consumed by people who are prone to allergic reactions and suffering from gallstone disease.

Other important information

Varieties of tomatoes

It’s nice to know that in 100 g of tomatoes there are only 18-20 kcal. Therefore, they are popular in diet food. Especially cute cherry tomatoes. The chemical composition of "kids" is represented by the same beneficial substances as in the case of large varieties. Various salads and vegetable sauces are prepared with them, which turn out to be tasty and healthy both for the body and for the figure. However, in order to preserve the nutrients, it is not recommended to heat the tomatoes. It is better to eat them fresh.

Particular attention should be paid to the selection of tomatoes. Since in most cases they are treated with chemicals, it is better not to buy tomatoes from strangers. It is advisable to find a bona fide seller whose vegetables do not make you doubt the quality.

Today you can find interesting collection varieties. Of course, many gardeners are wondering whether to buy them? Of course, the study of collection samples of tomatoes by chemical composition was carried out, and the results are more than pleasant - they have the same (if not better) properties and qualities as ordinary varieties. Moreover, they boast better resistance to diseases and temperature conditions. So collection varieties deserve no less attention.


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