Within the framework of the postgraduate program, the list of professional competencies obtained by students is usually a complete set of qualities that will then be required in the work. Already at the introductory classes in the first year, students are given an idea of what qualities and features they will need after graduation, and then they carefully work them out during the main higher education program, as well as in magistracy and graduate school. What are these competencies?
Before looking for a list of professional competencies for a particular profession, it is worthwhile to understand what this term hides under itself. Competence determines how competent a person is. Education involves the transfer of knowledge to a student, the development of his skills, and the acquisition by the listener of certain skills. Knowledge is useful professional information that can be measured by testing a person. Examinations are needed to test knowledge. Skills are what a person realizes, understands and does without hesitation. Skills - skills that a person is not aware of, uses almost intuitively, in the automaton mode. Competence - the ability to analyze skills, control professional development, create in the chosen field. This concept includes the ability to learn new things and search for atypical solutions, creative options for working on a task. In the event of a crisis, a competent specialist can start all over again, returning to the original skill and rethinking it.
The list of professional competencies is a list of qualities that form the competence. If someone is called a real master, thereby confirming possession of a complete list of competencies needed in the chosen field. Allocate corporate and personal competencies related to the sphere of management and professional. You can divide them into blocks. There is a category of leadership (affecting the ability to manage), a creativity class based on personal parameters, and corporate competencies, including all others. This approach to dividing into groups, according to many, simplifies the understanding of the essence of competence. Even more simplified, we can say that all competencies are professional or corporate.
And if in more detail?
Listed in the list of professional competencies are the requirements that apply to representatives of this particular area. These are human skills, his knowledge base, his skills. For different posts, these categories vary. Competencies are necessary to control a particular job, for a position, for managing some employees. Professional competencies include properties due to which a person flawlessly controls other people. The professional competencies of senior staff, subordinates are often the same (which is clearly seen in the examples of lists of professional competencies of the literary editor, doctor, teacher and other specialists in various fields). This is due to the fact that only a leader who is well versed in the practical work of subordinates is able to adequately manage what they do and how they work. The main idea of competency research is to identify professionals in a certain group.
To analyze the current composition of the work team, you need not only to know the list of professional competencies, but also to assess the extent to which different points are inherent to one or another citizen. To identify which competencies are needed, a special model should be drawn up. A list of required competencies is recommended for any important position. At the same time, it is established how successfully a person should possess the indicated category. Such work is the formation of a job profile. After profiling, they begin to evaluate employees through tests, surveys and cases. Based on the results obtained, skills, knowledge, and skills receive a proper assessment, real competencies - of opponents in the form of theoretically desired indicators.
Just knowing the complete list of professional competencies for a particular position, the manager will not be able to immediately understand how suitable the person working here is to his place. To do this, organize a check. There are several systems, but most often resort to a four-point rating system. If it was not possible to establish competence, if it is absent, evaluate the item as 0. If there are problems of knowledge, lack of skills, with small skills, assess competence in a specific aspect to one. With a good manifestation of the skill, the formed skills, a large amount of knowledge, the level is 2. Finally, the triple is put, if the assessee has shown a level of competence beyond the required, he has masterful skills and knowledge, skills, understands what he is doing, motivated for further activities.
All competencies begin in the past, appear at the current moment and have potential. It is permissible to measure what is currently available. The knowledge gained must be compared with the standard for the field. The higher the position of a person in the hierarchical structure of the company, the more significant the requirements are, the stricter are compliance with corporate competencies, while weakening expectations in terms of professional ones. Some people mistakenly believe that managers are not professionals. It's a delusion. A good leader is better than his subordinate is guided in the nuances, that is, in fact, his professional competencies are much higher than the level established as the minimum necessary. Professional - those categories due to which the person understands the features of the processes that are entrusted to her in the management. Despite the relatively soft requirements for meeting the list of professional competencies, a person holding a managerial position must have excellent qualities in order to successfully manage all the work.
About accounting work
The theme outlined above can be illustrated by examples. In particular, the work of accountants is pretty clear. The list of professional competencies of an accountant in our country is determined in an official manner. A special document has been issued, which employers are obliged to focus on, choosing staff for their company. The first and basic competence is the adoption of primary documentation for accounting. Official papers document the course of an enterprise’s life. To cope with the task, you need to have the skills to complete the initial documentation, be able to check papers, use programs on a PC to keep records. The task of the accountant is to guarantee the safety of the documentation until the moment when it is transferred to the archival institution. The legislation of our country regulates the rules of accounting in the aspects of workflow, and also controls archiving. The accountant must know these laws, have an idea about OKUD. It is equally important to work with internal documentation of a managerial, organizational nature. This regulates how primary documents should be compiled, how they are stored and when, in what form they are transferred to the archive.
The list of professional competencies of an accountant includes knowledge, skills, skills in working with computer and office equipment. A person must know the basics of computer science. An equally important aspect is the monetary valuation of accounting objects, the formation of groups of facts of the economic existence of the enterprise. The accountant must register the data, accumulate them, keeping double entries on the most simplified system in order to avoid errors. It is necessary to use the norms of cost measurement of the considered objects, apply the rules for depreciation accrual determined by the accounting policy of the enterprise. Among the competencies is the compilation of business records in accordance with the adopted plan. You need to be able to calculate the commodity cost, generate reporting costing, calculate salaries, benefits and other due payments to the employed. Among the competencies is the calculation in domestic national currency of the price of assets expressed in foreign currency symbols. You need to own the databases of laws on social life, medical care, insurance, pensions, relations between the employed and the employer. The accountant should be guided in general terms in the laws on customs, civil relations, taxes.
The list of general and professional competencies of an accountant includes possession of methods for accounting for expenses on goods, the practical application of laws on the circulation of money. The accountant must be able to apply the costing methodology. Its task is to keep internal organized and administrative documentation, to know and apply the norms and rules of the cost measurement of the counted objects.
Another competency includes the ability to summarize the results of economic life. The list of competencies mentions the economic foundations, the technological base, the features of the organization of production and management processes in relation to a particular enterprise. Within the framework of such competence, the skills of an accountant are considered to be the ability to make inquiries, answers to various requests. The employee must compare the accounting information and information on the accounts, conduct accounting based on the results of the comparison, and form an analysis. Among the skills - the use of PCs and specialized programs for conducting accounting operations.
No less curious is the list of professional competencies of a lawyer. From specialized standards, you can find out that a person who completed training in this area is required to own disciplines at the federal level established as mandatory for such a specialty. Theoretical preparedness for work is very important. A lawyer must be fluent in the conceptual apparatus, have excellent orientation skills in the new information field. An active life position is important for a lawyer. It is important to be creative in your work. The list of competencies includes impeccable computer skills at the user level, as well as the ability to use the virtual web and participate in projects on its open spaces. The list includes knowledge of a foreign language, etiquette and rules of conduct in society.
The list of professional competencies of a lawyer includes the possession of speech, both oral and in writing documentation. It is necessary to state thoughts clearly, competently, to represent the position, supporting it with arguments. No less significant requirements are to represent the rights and obligations of someone who works as a lawyer. This is important for self-determination in the chosen profession. A lawyer must have a sufficient amount of knowledge about a healthy life, have knowledge of business procedures. Professional ethics is important. For a lawyer, a very important skill is the ability to take responsibility for what is done at work. No less significant quality is self-criticism.
And if in more detail?
The similarity of the list of professional competencies of the economist and lawyer is noted. These persons should be responsible, as executive as possible. Misses and delays are not allowed. For economists and lawyers, one of the key indicators of discipline is compliance with the established deadlines for the performance of a task. A person who wants to show their compliance with professional requirements must cope with any tasks clearly and precisely on time. For competence, work skills are important regularly, intensively, and interestedly. As a rule, their future lawyers and economists acquire during their studies at a higher educational institution, where the teacher plays the role of a key manager. It is his task to develop regular work skills among students.
Another competency is the ability to learn independently. Studies were conducted on updating the professional level of a person. It has been established that professional competencies are half lost in about a couple of years, within 5-7 they disappear completely if the person does not study, does not gain new skills and abilities on their own. The task of any responsible lawyer and economist is to continuously study, thereby maintaining their competitiveness in the labor market.
Educators and teachers
An equally curious topic is the list of professional competencies of a teacher, as well as a teacher engaged in circles in which certain skills and abilities are taught to minors. Every teacher must be competent, create adequate conditions so that the personality of each child develops. If a specialist is engaged in further education, he must be competent in the aspects of the compensatory task of his field of work in relation to the general educational process. Such a teacher should work with children, teach them to develop, focusing on the interests, age, and personal characteristics of the students. For this, it is necessary to use different forms, methods (including interactive), technologies allowed in the framework of education and training in a specialized institution.
The list of professional competencies of the teacher and specialist in further education includes the ability to plan the outcome of the process, to predict how this or that period of teaching information, skills, and abilities will end. The task of teachers of different directions is to organize activities, take into account the characteristics of different ages so that students receive maximum knowledge. For further education, the organization of social events uniting different groups of students is especially important. They are aimed at implementing the creative aspects of personalities. It is supposed to involve not only children, but also their families, as well as the teaching staff of the institution.
Features of continuing education
The list of competencies for teachers in this field requires the ability to determine the creative potential of the child and translate it into reality. It is necessary to monitor the positive changes of each of the trusted children, to support them. The teacher must pay special attention to those who are characterized by deviant behavior.
Implementation of work in accordance with the designated competencies allows you to educate children in the quality of personality, through which they will understand the value of different people and nationalities. Children will receive aesthetic education, they will be inherent in solid morality. The teacher shapes the artistic taste of the group.
Curious is the list of professional competences of the teacher. It includes the ability of psychological and pedagogical support in various institutions. The list mentions the implementation of work plans aimed at the development of children. It is necessary to be able to develop programs for the development, upbringing, adaptation of children to society. The teacher and psychologist are engaged in aspects of various correction of minors. Collaborating with the group’s main teacher, such people should develop curricula for individual children individually, taking into account the characteristics of the student. The list of competencies includes monitoring the results of mastering common programs declared by the country's standards.
It is worth considering the list of professional competencies of the leader. This includes the ability to think strategically, to know the basics of marketing, in order to successfully manage the company. It is necessary to control the flow of money, to be able to invest and correctly identify promising new projects. Competencies include the ability to develop a new proposal, to understand information technology and automation methods, as well as market laws. The head should organize sales processes, marketing. His task is to know the production, various aspects of the company. – , , . , .
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