Smelting of metals is a rather specific and complex process. It should be performed only on specialized equipment, and the procedure is carried out exclusively by professionals, so that there is no possibility of causing significant damage. Metals can melt in many ways. The choice depends on the equipment used. Interesting enough is the levitation melting of metals. It can be done with your own hands, but for this you need to acquire the appropriate equipment represented by induction furnaces.
What is the process used for?
Levitation smelting is realized exclusively with the help of suitable equipment. It is represented by induction furnaces, providing the creation of optimal conditions for this process.
These heaters can be industrial or domestic. They work by the induction principle, therefore they are represented by specific electrical equipment. Sold in the market in numerous models. And you can do them yourself.
Special conditions are formed in them, due to which levitation melting of metals is realized.
Do-it-yourself levitation melting of various metals has certain positive parameters. These include:
- heating is direct and non-contact, therefore, all generated heat is used with a high efficiency indicator;
- Efficiency with this method reaches 90%, which is considered a really high indicator for any method of metal smelting;
- during this procedure, not only thermal, but also electrodynamic movement of the liquid material is carried out, therefore a uniform and uniform temperature is established throughout the volume;
- it is convenient to use this method in that immediately after turning on the equipment you can begin to work;
- levitation smelting of metals provides a high speed of the process;
- the melt temperature can be easily adjusted by the master;
- energy can be focused to the desired zones;
- metal melts uniformly, which guarantees uniformity and efficiency of this process;
- no fumes from alloying substances;
- Levitation smelting is an environmentally friendly and safe process.
For many people, the undoubted advantage is the ability to independently create an induction furnace for these purposes. Then you can do the melting yourself, which reduces the cost of this process.
What is required for the operation of the equipment?
To form a workable and reliable furnace, you need to understand the basis and principles of induction heating. The whole process of equipment formation consists of several actions, which include the development of a circuit, the design of a tool and the preparation of a furnace.
With the independent creation of the furnace, you can choose its optimal capacity and operating frequency. A lining method is determined that is suitable for a particular user.
Principle of operation
Do-it-yourself metal levitation is carried out using an induction furnace, the operation of which is based on the production of heat through electricity. It can be obtained by generating an alternating electromagnetic field. For this, an inductor represented by an inductor is used.
Due to the operation of such a furnace, initially electromagnetic energy is converted into vortex, after which thermal energy will be obtained.
Inside closed bodies there are eddy currents that provide the release of thermal energy. It acts on the metal, which leads to its heating from the inside. Even the conversion of energy in several steps does not reduce the efficiency of the equipment.
The molten metal levitates in a crucible formed of copper tubes arranged vertically in a circle. Around this crucible is a copper induction coil. It is it that contributes to the excitation of a high power magnetic field with a supersonic frequency in it.
During metal melting, Foucault eddy currents occur. They provide fast heating of the material, which leads to its intense melting. Moreover, they create a counter magnetic field interacting with the primary. This leads to the appearance of the Lorentz force, due to which the metal in the liquid state soars in an inert medium, and does not touch the walls of the crucible.
The scheme of levitation melting, carried out with one's own hands, is quite simple, therefore, due to independent work, the efficiency of using equipment is increased. Furnaces from 220V work, but it is required to use a rectifier. In these devices, only electrically conductive metals are allowed to melt.
The nuances of using an induction furnace
Levitational smelting of metals, performed on their own on home-made equipment, is considered a simple and affordable process, which is accompanied by features:
- there is no need to prepare a separate room, as the process is safe and silent;
- it is allowed to duplicate such melting with other methods of heating metals;
- No need to carry out any preventive processes;
- due to the presence of constant vibration, the minimum scale indicator is set;
- You can use different liquid coolants;
- designs are durable, since their mechanical wear is at a low level;
- harmful substances are not emitted during operation.
Thus, levitation smelting of metals is indeed beneficial for people working with these materials.
In what areas of activity is it used?
Such levitation smelting is considered a simple process that is used in various fields of activity. Due to it, a different result is obtained:
- ultra-pure materials are formed, so there will be no pollution from the atmosphere;
- with the help of such a melting homogeneous materials are obtained having a uniform composition;
- this method is ideal for the preparation of various metals or alloys that are chemically active;
- it is allowed to work even with refractory materials, since with this method even a temperature of up to 3 thousand degrees is achieved.
Thus, due to this method of melting, it is possible to work with metals in different directions.
Melting is implemented using appropriate equipment, formed from important elements, such as:
- electrical part;
- cooling system.
With your own hands you can make a design that includes only the electrical part and the cooling system. Melting is guaranteed due to the presence of an oncoming electromagnetic field, connecting with eddy currents in the metal. It is due to this that a certain metal element is held in space.
Effective melting of the metal requires currents with a high height and frequency, reaching a minimum of 400 Hz. Enough for this voltage of 220V, obtained from a conventional outlet. To do this, it is necessary to turn 50 Hz into 400 Hz, for which any circuit used to form a Tesla coil is used . For levitational smelting of metals, the scheme can be different, so at home it is quite simple to engage in this process.
Levitation melting is an unusual way of melting different metals. She has really numerous advantages. You can create equipment for this process with your own hands. Such smelting is used for various fields of activity. The procedure is considered prompt and safe, so it can be easily carried out at home. In this case, there is no danger to harm health.