With the help of milling machines you can easily engage in metal cutting. Additionally, it is possible to process various wooden blanks. All this is carried out with the help of such a detail as a mill. In form, it can vary quite a lot, however, its general features can still be distinguished. It looks like a metal pin, on the end of which there are blades. In shape, they can be flat or shaped.
If we talk directly about the machines, then the cutter in them can be located vertically or horizontally. In this case, the position of the main nodes also changes. The dimensions of the device also differ, since the power of the machines can be from 3 kW to 6 kW. In addition, it should be borne in mind that the working platforms are made in various sizes.
Simple milling machine
In order to make a simple home-made carpentry milling machine, you must first select a high-quality electric motor. Ultimately, it will be mounted on the frame. Further, at the top, as a rule, there is a base from which the proboscis departs. It is mainly made of steel. At the same time, the minimum thickness of the metal should be 1.5 mm (a drawing of a home-made milling machine is shown below). The sleeve in this case can be used steel.
Specialists most often make supports for the machine from cast iron. The minimum width of the strip for them should be about 3 cm. Additionally, a connector for the control unit should be provided. In this case, it is important to choose a reliable controller to start the electric motor. A niche for him can be cut out of wood.
How to make a table for the machine?
Today, tables for machine tools are made of both wood and metal. If we consider the first option additionally, it is possible to install many shelves for tools. The longitudinal board in this case should be 2 cm thick. The height of the table will be 1.2 meters.
In order to install the shelves for a homemade wood milling machine, it is necessary to provide a lower bar in advance for fixing them. Also, many experts advise installing the control unit directly in the table. To do this, select the controller with the "Start" and "Stop" buttons. At the end of the work, make a hole for the power cable.
If we consider metal tables, then the pipes in this case are best selected with a square section. All this, ultimately, will support the heavy weight of the machine. Additionally, the user will be able to process large workpieces. The working area of the place should at least occupy 240 x 460 mm.
A homemade metal milling machine cannot be made without a fork designed to hold the sleeve on which the cutter is fixed. It is most often made of brass. If we consider horizontal modifications, then its length should be at least 5 cm. It is attached to the sleeve by welding. Before this, it is very important to carefully clean its surface. The fork should be at least 2 cm wide.
If we consider a vertical home-made milling machine for metal, then in this case it is fixed on the frame. For this, it is necessary to provide a special basis. It is usually made of metal. At the same time, if a wooden table is used, then it is possible to fill a large thickness bar on it. Then the fork is peeled and attached to the sleeve. To do this, you have to use a welding machine.
Mounting the shaft to the machine
The shaft for the machine is selected mainly hex. In this case, the torque will be higher. At the base, the shaft should be fixed on the frame. At the same time, its other side is attached to the trunk. To avoid excessive shaft friction, experts advise lubricating it with machine oil before installation. Additionally, measurements should be taken on the slide. If it is located quite low, then the frame must be lengthened, increasing the base.
Swivel plate in device
Machines with a rotary plate today are quite popular. This is mainly due to the fact that they will allow you to fine-tune the position of the workpiece during its processing. Additionally, they replace a large number of flywheels in the design. Thus, the homemade wood milling machine is more compact. As a result, he is able to withstand a large workpiece, and at the same time he does not exert much pressure on the base.
The implementation of the swivel base may be different. As a rule, it involves the use of bearings. In some cases, they are replaced by special heads that are installed on a makeshift wood milling machine. However, such modifications will cost an order of magnitude more expensive. Given all of the above, it is best to consider the first option. Bearings in this case, it is advisable to select a diameter of not more than 3 mm.
Bearings must be installed in the groove, pre-lubricated. The number of grooves depends only on the dimensions of the plate itself. If you take a standard platform 250 x 250 mm, then four grooves for bearings is quite enough. However, larger models require special calculation. In this situation, consider hex or octagonal bases. In this case, it is possible to increase the number of grooves.
In order to make the table convenient to use, small pushers are attached to it. With their help, it will be quite simple to move the plate on the working surface. In order for a home-made wood milling machine to work properly, periodic groove inspections are necessary. If their lubrication is disturbed, then all elements must be removed, cleaned and put back in.
The worm gear of the machine must be mounted on a base. If we consider the cast-iron frames, then they need to make two holes. Additionally, you need a small size plate that will fix the worm gear. In order not to disrupt the operation of the device, it is necessary first of all to measure the distance from the base to the shaft. Given the dimensions of the worm gear, it is important to compare everything before installation.
Some in this regard prefer the welded method. However, it is much simpler to connect the plate with nuts. At the end of the work, it is imperative to hide it with a protective panel. Otherwise, dirt will settle on it quite often. Ultimately, the shaft will also become dirty and its torque will be significantly reduced.
The control unit for the machine must be selected based on the power of the power system. In addition, a niche on the table should be provided for it in advance. Most often, blocks for an induction motor are purchased dual-channel. In this case, the user has the ability to turn on and off the self-made CNC milling machine using two buttons. However, for some this is not enough, and they want to control the speed of rotation of the cutter.
In this case, you need to think about buying a multi-channel unit. As a result, the user will have the opportunity to independently adjust the pace of work. Before installing this equipment, it is important to route all the power cables and hide them in order to avoid further damage.
Horizontal milling machine
Horizontal home - made turning and milling machines in our time are quite rare. This is due to the fact that they are capable of processing, as a rule, only wooden billets. In this case, metal objects are milled on them with great difficulty. In order to make this device, you must immediately pick up the cast-iron base.
The proboscis in this case is important to fix with the edge of the lower frame. In this situation, the shaft will not touch the adjustable plate. The trunk is mounted on the proboscis, as a rule, using a welding machine. However, you can use the screw method and fix the part to the nuts. Slides in a CNC milling machine for wood are installed in various diameters. In addition, it is necessary to provide for the presence of a flywheel to change the position of the cutter. Last but not least, it is important to install the power supply together with the electric motor. In this case, the cable must be hidden under the frame, so as not to damage it during operation.
Vertical milling devices
Homemade vertical milling machines are more common today. In their design, they are quite similar, and compared to horizontal modifications are made much easier. First of all, you should choose a quality frame. In this case, you can use wood panels. At the same time, it is necessary to strengthen them along the edges with bars. Their minimum thickness should be approximately 3 cm. However, in this case a lot depends on the dimensions of the electric motor.
The proboscis in the mechanism should be located directly on the main plate. The working area of a vertical machine is approximately 250 x 250 mm on average. In this case, you can work with blanks of various sizes. In addition, it is necessary to provide a crankshaft in the device. He must settle down immediately under the proboscis. In this case, the spindle is attached to it last. Before this, it is necessary to cut out the bed from metal and lay it on the frame. A separate place for the control unit is also being prepared. It should be located close to the electric motor. The wiring in this case is fixed on the wall of the device.
Universal copy milling machine
Universal homemade copy-milling machine is distinguished by its multifunctionality. Thanks to the movable spindle in the device, parts can be machined at different angles. In this case, the adjustment can be done manually or using the controller. In the first case, a special small plate is laid on the frame. The brackets are fixed along its edges.
To change their position, flywheels are used. In this case, they should be selected with a small diameter. For better fixing of parts, it is necessary to use clamping rings. In this case, the load on the brackets during operation will be minimal. The cutter to the spindle should be screwed up quite tightly. Some modifications of the machines provide for special protection.