The quadcopter is a flying platform on the radio with four brushless motors equipped with propellers. The composition of such devices includes a flying multi-rotor platform. In flight, the quadrocopter occupies a horizontal position relative to the surface of the earth, is able to hover over the selected place, moves to the sides, up and down. The presence of special additional equipment allows the quadrocopter to carry out almost autonomous flights.
Quadrocopter with camera
This device is equipped with four rotors that rotate diagonally in opposite directions. The rotors are controlled by a processor that reports data from three gyroscopes designed to determine and fix the position in space in all three planes. Thanks to the accelerometer, it is possible to occupy an absolutely horizontal position. The quadrocopter is fixed at the required height due to the equipment with a barosensor. The device is shifted in space due to the fact that the rotation speed of one or another two motors changes. A roll of the quadrocopter occurs with its further movement.
This direction began to develop in 2006. German developers Ingo Busker and Holgen Buss created a quadrocopter with their own hands. A huge community of enthusiastic people gathered around him - RC-modelers, programmers, designers. In mid-2007, quadrocopters began to soar and move quite steadily in the air. Such devices differ from radio-controlled helicopters in a positive direction due to design flexibility and low cost. The equipment necessary for a quadrocopter can be purchased, and then there is a huge scope for creativity. In addition, in the event of a fall, usually repairing such a device is much cheaper than a radio-controlled helicopter.
How to assemble a quadrocopter with your own hands: instruction
The frame for the device can be done independently. This will require not so many materials. Among them, a piece of plywood 150 x 150 mm, a square aluminum profile 14 x 14 mm. Rays can be fastened with screws on the diagonals of the square. Thin aluminum tape can be used to create boarding skis and a battery holder . Each beam from the center has a length of 300 mm, and each beam is 250 mm. The holes for the engines at the ends of the beams can be made after assembly, marking everything according to the engines.
RC quadcopter: list of required parts
- Turnigy 9x hardware.
- Control board.
- Battery for equipment.
- Power battery on the quadrocopter itself.
- Charging device.
First you need to install the control board, and try to place it as close to the center of the platform as possible. That is, it is better to measure everything in advance, so that later you do not get any problems with the balance and other points. The holes are drilled through the previously installed plywood, right at the ends of the aluminum beams. Long metal screws are used to screw the board directly to the beams. Speaking about how to assemble a quadrocopter with your own hands, it should be noted that the rays should not be drilled through, since here the battery adheres to them as tightly as possible.
A receiver is required in the immediate vicinity of the board. It can be fixed with superglue. If the destination of the channels at the receiver exactly matches those of the control board, then it is possible to make a simplified connection for them by means of two three-wire loops.
If you talk about how to make a quadrocopter with your own hands, then you need to mark the rays and drill holes for the engine. The distance from the edges to the axis of rotation in all cases should be exactly the same. The hole intended for the tail of the shaft, which protrudes from the bottom of the engine, must be drilled through the entire width of the square, which will allow you to see if the shaft is clinging to its edges.
Disassembly with wiring
At this stage, it is time to perform the following operations. First, a “spider” is made of four speed controllers, and their power wires must be connected in parallel through special adapters. Use plug-in connections is only in one place - where the battery is connected to the "spider". Everything else must be soldered, and then tightened into heat shrinkage, as in the flight from vibration, various unexpected things can happen. Now you need to connect the driver signal wires in accordance with the engine numbers on the control board.
When everything is assembled, you can proceed to testing and solving problems.
The first thing to say to those who are interested in how to assemble a quadrocopter with their own hands: do not save on details. There are a large number of firmware, sensor options, ready-made controllers, but our article will describe the use of Arduino Mega, MegaPirate firmware, as well as relatively cheap sensors.
First you need 4 motors plus 1 spare. Propellers should also be taken with a margin, there should be at least 2 standard and 2 - reverse rotation. 4 speed controllers, plus a few spare ones. As a power source, you should not take one super-capacious battery, as it will only give extra weight to the device. It is best to prefer a few small ones to change them in turn. The frame should be as strong and light as possible. The option described above can be called quite suitable. You can use a programmable microcontroller as the brains and sensors of the device, the board - AllInOne, accelerometer, gyroscope, control valves, batteries, charger, and much more. The latter should be understood as the required number of bolts, cogs, wires, couplers. You will also need tools for work, such as a soldering iron and accessories for working with it, a drill, as well as skillful hands.
Iron assembly and configuration
If you have everything described above, then it is quite possible to begin the processes of drilling, soldering and twisting. The frame can be done in the same way as described earlier, or you can show imagination. But here only one thing is important: make sure that the distance from the center to the ends of the rays is exactly the same, while the propellers should not touch each other and the central part of the plywood during rotation, since all the sensors, brains, and the camera are placed on it if you wish. The sensors should be installed on thick tape, rubber or silicone to reduce vibration. In the middle or at the ends of the beams, you can fix foam, tight foam or rubber beacons, which will take on the functions of the chassis at the time of landing.
Sensors and ways to get them
The simplest option is to buy a finished board with four main sensors: a gyroscope designed to measure angular acceleration; an accelerometer for measuring gravity and acceleration; a barometer that determines the height and holds the quadrocopter on it; magnetometer, which fixes the direction of movement.
At the moment, you can find on the market such boards on which, in addition to the four indicated sensors, there is also a GPS receiver, which is actively used for autonomous flights.
To make the installation process as convenient as possible, it is worth placing everything on a circuit board that performs the functions of a prototype. The pinout of the connection depends on the type of firmware that was current at the time of collecting the device, so in each case, everything should be connected in accordance with the instructions.
Firmware setup and download
Finding the right firmware at the moment is not difficult, so you should download the appropriate archive and unzip it. After the firmware in Arduino is successfully downloaded, you can download the setup program, and then close the A5 contact with GND. When the program is launched, select the Arduino COM port in the Option menu and AC2 Setup in the Action menu. It is important that the quadrocopter setup is successful, and for this you need to clearly follow the instructions that appear before you after clicking on the huge button. In one window, you will need to move the handles on the remote control to the maximum and minimum values, and in another window you will be asked to make sure that the device is level to correctly calibrate the sensors.
Quadrocopter control is configured after calibration. After you complete the setup, A5 with GND can be opened, and then in the menu find the AC2 Sensor item, where you can check whether the sensors work correctly in the Raw Sensor tab. Each turn of the board with the sensors should be worked out as clearly as possible, that is, as it is turned, the arrow becomes, if it does not reach or passes the desired value, then you have problems either with the sensor or with the coefficients in the code.
It is necessary to check the operation of the receiver. This is done in the next tab. If the movement of the levels is correct, then when the joystick is deflected by 2 seconds, the red LED should light up to the right. When the same manipulator moves slowly upwards, approximately the same level deviation should occur in the left column.
When everything has passed the test, you can mount the propellers, and then try to take off. To do this, the quadrocopter should be placed away from you, tilt the left handle down and to the right, and then slowly add gas. If the device took off, it is very good, but if it is shaking, you will have to configure the PID. This is done in the PID Config clause. All this is done individually in each situation, that is, there is no universal solution. Now you know how to assemble a quadrocopter with your own hands.