Most metal workshops require blacksmithing. Such equipment cannot be dispensed with when working not only with cold, but also with hot forging. The necessary equipment can be purchased, but its cost is very high: the minimum price is several tens of thousands of rubles. For this reason, many workshop owners decide to make a gas horn with their own hands.
Coal or charcoal, petroleum products or gas may be used as fuel for the hearth. Gas blacksmith forge is the best option for workshop equipment due to the low cost of fuel and its availability. The efficiency of such a hearth is high, and it can be connected not only to the main gas pipeline, but also to fuel cylinders.
Processing metal products requires heating them to a color change and acquiring a light orange hue. Such changes in steel correspond to a temperature of 1000-1200 . The metal brought to this state easily undergoes deformations under the influence of percussion instruments.
The workpiece loses its plasticity as it cools, and forging and shaping it accordingly becomes more difficult. Applying more force leads to deformation of the metal, increases its fragility. Maintaining the temperature of the forging avoids the destruction of the material.
A conventional furnace is not able to give a temperature of more than 1000 ° C. For such purposes, furnaces with forced air flow are used.
Forging metal billets and maintaining the desired temperature is used forge forge. Such equipment is used not only for forging, but also for melting and subsequent pouring of metal into molds, hardening tools, soldering using copper and brass.
Advantages of the gas horn
- The design of such equipment is simpler due to the lack of grate grates in it , in contrast to the same coal options;
- More convenient adjustment of fuel supply and temperature;
- Light weight allows you to move the gas furnace;
- The cost of self-production is small and will not affect the budget of the master;
- Gas is one of the most affordable and cheapest types of fuel.
Types of gas horns
The design features of the horns play practically no role and are chosen by the master depending on his preferences and the final wishes for the effectiveness of the equipment. Often even the basic rule is neglected - the creation of a base from a refractory hearth. However, there are several main varieties of horns.
Metal structure mounted on a refractory foundation. Its role may be a concrete site or refractory bricks. For this design, a special pallet is created in which parts are placed for subsequent heating. On the sides there are vertical racks on which the burner for the gas furnace is mounted.
With this design, the smoke is naturally drawn during operation; accordingly, it is not necessary to create a hood. But at the same time, the gas horn is placed either in a well-ventilated room or in the open air.
The advantage of such a hearth design is the possibility of heating different parts on a pallet, and their dimensions are limited only by side racks.
It is not a separate kind of hearth, because it is an integral part of it. Its body is most often made of stainless steel; one end of the pipe is closed with a removable lid or welded. On the other hand, a metal mesh with a suitable diameter is installed - it depends on the desired torch.
A pipe is welded to the side of the closed end of the pipe, through which the fuel mixture will be supplied. It is attached to a pipe of a smaller diameter, through which gas flows from the compressor.
The impeller is placed to enrich the fuel mixture with air.
The main difference between a gas furnace of this type from the rest is the type of traction. In this design, it is forced and is carried out by means of a fan. This option is optimal because it allows you to ventilate the entire room.
The furnace is made in cubic form of refractory bricks. Homemade gas hearth for domestic use is usually small - its sides rarely exceed one meter in length. An umbrella is placed on top - a metal cover made of a sheet of metal 4 mm thick. The internal volume must be completely sealed, otherwise the efficiency of the hearth will be low.
How to make a gas horn with your own hands
The basic design requirement is lightness and practicality. Thanks to these qualities, the equipment can be easily moved from place to place.
To achieve the desired result, the gas hearth is made up of refractory blocks - either refractory brick or the so-called fireclay brick acts in their role.
The process of how to make a gas horn consists of several stages:
- Refractory blocks or bricks are prepared.
- A hearth body is created - the number of parts used can vary depending on the complexity and size of the selected structure.
- You can handle the case with a hacksaw or any other tool.
- There should not be any gaps between individual blocks or bricks - all elements should fit as tightly as possible to each other.
- From a half of a brick or block in the front of the structure, a small threshold is created that allows maintaining a high temperature in the furnace.
- A small rectangular hole is cut in the back, which will be used for ventilation. In addition, such a cutout will allow you to work with long metal blanks.
- A hole is cut in the side wall along the diameter of the gas burner.
The gas hearth after performing the described manipulations can be considered completed. For its operation, only a gas burner and the testing of the entire device in practice are required.
Horn gas burner
The main part of the hearth is a gas burner - it is she who creates the temperature necessary for processing metals. Masters most often perform stainless steel burners, using a pipe welded from one end and closed with a metal mesh from the other.
The diameter of the hole is selected individually, depending on what force the flame should be. An additional pipe is supplied to the burner, through which the fuel mixture is supplied. The finished hearth can only be used after the burner has been adjusted.
Bucket blacksmith forge
You can create a blacksmith forge at home from improvised materials - for example, an ordinary bucket.
Such a furnace is created quite simply: holes are made in the walls, the inner surface of the metal is covered with ceramic wool that can withstand temperatures of more than 1200 degrees. Since the bucket has a conical shape, it must be correctly placed, for which the legs are installed.
A hole for the burner is created in the middle of the hearth; a ventilation hole is cut in the bottom of the hearth. Fireclay brick with increased refractoriness is laid to the bottom. Finished equipment is often covered with a layer of heat-resistant paint.
- Cutting a small hole in the back of the hearth will improve ventilation. In addition, this cutout allows you to heat up metal workpieces of great length.
- The blacksmith forge is placed on a special metal stand or table, which makes working with it more convenient. The height is selected individually by the master.
- If the blacksmith's workshop works with blanks of different sizes and shapes, then it is advisable to install several furnaces of different sizes at once. They are placed close to each other, and with the help of flexible hoses they supply gas and air. This design solution allows you to quickly reconnect the burner.
- On each gas pipeline shutoff valves should be located. For this purpose, ordinary valves are most often used - they provide a smoother adjustment, in contrast to ball counterparts.
The main thing in creating a blacksmith forge with your own hands is to present the principle of work, choose the right materials and observe safety precautions. Such equipment is created by craftsmen based on personal preferences, wishes and requirements, which provides a wide scope for activity.