Classification of freight transportation: types and characteristics

Today, freight transportation is very popular among all segments of the population. This service may be needed in various situations: when delivering various purchases, when moving products to a warehouse or between outlets, when moving to a new house.

Main classifications

The division of transportation into categories can be carried out according to a number of certain signs. Among others, there are several main classifications. Freight transportation is primarily divided according to the type of transport that is used. Of the available options are mentioned water, land, air, pipeline and mixed (consisting of several). Speaking more specifically about the means of transportation themselves, we can distinguish the widespread use of ships of sea and river traffic, railway trains, trucks and aviation.

In addition, what exactly is transported matters. It can be not only some kind of cargo, but also baggage or a person. The message itself can be direct or indirect, as well as with a regular, intermittent or one-time route. Among the types of freight transportation and their classification, it is also allowed to consider the transport and technological system. The latter can be lighter, ferry or container. Depending on what goods are transported, the necessary conditions for transportation are selected.

Types of freight transportation and their classification

Car traffic

It is considered the most popular and sought-after option for individuals and legal entities. It is preferable to give preference to road freight transport for a number of reasons, including the relatively low cost and the ability to ship to almost anywhere in the country. As a rule, for the entire time of transportation, only loading at the point of departure and unloading at the destination takes place. This means that the transported things will not be again subjected to movement. There are no special restrictions on weight and dimensions, because you can always find a suitable car.

Companies often use this type of transport due to its reliability and a high percentage of cargo safety. The driver of the car is responsible for the transported property and properly monitors it. Also, legal entities often send their own escort for even greater reliability. Among the disadvantages of this option, it is possible to single out the impossibility of transporting very large loads that do not fit into one car. In addition, it is not always cost-effective to send something over long distances.

Freight road transport

Railway connection

Historically, a large proportion of the traffic load has always been on domestic railways. Many regions of the Russian Federation received their development precisely thanks to the presence of such a message. Currently, the situation has changed insignificantly and more than 50 percent of all freight is carried by train. This is mainly due to the high preservation of the contents during transportation and an excellent level of mobility.

Of the shortcomings, it should be noted the complex and excessively long time clearance of the goods, as well as a rather large package of documents required for approval of transportation. Of course, the availability of such transportation is limited by the regions in which the railway is laid. The preferred way to transport something on the train is storage in a container. In general, the development of rail freight transportation is a priority for the state, and therefore the complexity of processing for ordinary citizens is gradually decreasing against the background of a general increase in the availability of such an option.

Rail freight development

Air traffic

This method is in demand not only for international transportation, but also within the same country. Many believe that fragile and most valuable items are best transported only by air. If you look at the classification of cargo transportation, then air transport in it stands out as the safest and theft-protected option. At modern airports, baggage control includes compulsory customs clearance during loading and unloading. Land transport has only one content verification procedure, which is carried out directly at the border crossing.

Sometimes the choice falls on the plane for reasons beyond the control of the sender. Often people are faced with such a situation that there are no roads or railways at their destination. Also, some transported products are perishable, which means they require prompt transportation. Air transportation, in turn, is the fastest of all the options that exist in the classification of cargo transportation.

Air Freight Classification

Water communication

The movement of objects, things or people by sea and river transport is in demand only in some regions. Water communication undoubtedly has a number of advantages, among which are the rather low cost of services for companies, and the actual absence of such a characteristic as throughput.

In the classification of freight transportation, this option can be called the most specific and demanding for departure and destination points, since both of them must be equipped with appropriate infrastructure such as ports and moorings with cranes for loading and unloading, as well as other special equipment.

Classification of cargo transportation on ships

Other options

In the transport industry, some associated waste of money and time is inevitable. The same car drivers can take any cargo to the specified point, completely get rid of it and start returning to the starting point already "light". However, there is a simple method to avoid such costs. There are so-called passing freight transportation. They lead to an increase in the load time of the transport up to one hundred percent, that is, they maximize its efficiency. A slight change in the routes for the delivery of already passing cargo is also allowed. At the same time, this variety should not be confused with shuttle transport, which moves in predetermined directions through assembly points.


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