RACI matrix as a liability management tool. RACI: Decryption

One of the most common causes of failed projects is the incorrect distribution of functions between team members. Surely you have already encountered this: at the slightest difficulty, participants begin to look for the guilty and transfer responsibility to each other instead of solving the problem. And just to avoid such situations, the RACI matrix was invented - a simple and effective tool for planning human resources.

raci matrix

Under the Microscope: 4 Key Roles in Each Project

Distribution of tasks is one of the main responsibilities of a manager. But in practice, everything usually looks different: the leader simply appoints team members with the expectation that the experts themselves will decide who should do what. But what happens if the deadlines are broken or a low-quality product is released? “I do not do this”, “they didn’t tell me that” ... And no useful actions.

A competently constructed RACI responsibility matrix allows you to solve many problems. According to this technique, regardless of the complexity and volume of work, a team member of any project performs one of four roles.

R - Responsible

Translated, "Responsible" means "performer." This is an employee who is directly responsible for the performance of a particular participant in the work. Moreover, in most cases, he does not choose the methods of solution and reports to the project manager.

Competent workers and specialists are appointed to this role - people who know how to do . In RACI, executors perform these functions:

  • determine what exactly needs to be done to implement the project and how long it will take (within the framework of the conditions set "from above");
  • make a list of necessary resources;
  • participate in the coordination and approval of technical documentation;
  • analyze the progress of the project and intermediate results ;
  • provide the leader with reports on the work done.

There can be several such people in a team. In addition, this role can be combined with others. The most common combination is Accountable + Resbonsible (translated as “responsible + executor”).

responsible translation

A - Accountable

“Accountable” or “responsible” is the main project manager. It is he who is responsible for ensuring that the tasks set are completed on time, with the required level of quality and within the allocated budget. In addition, A:

  • selects executors and project management team;
  • assigns tasks to all participants;
  • controls the progress of work;
  • distributes resources between performers;
  • keeps track of the use of resources, and also justifies the curator the need to allocate additional funds;
  • considers the ideas and suggestions of other team members, can approve or reject them.

Typically, a project manager acts as a “liaison” between the customer or senior management and the team.

raci vs

C - Consulted

The third role in the RACI matrix is ​​the “consultant” (sometimes also called the “curator”). Along with the leader, he takes part in the management of the project, but is primarily involved in solving strategic issues:

  • approves any changes in the volume and terms of work;
  • allocates resources necessary for the implementation of the project;
  • if necessary, coordinate with the customer the need to increase the budget;
  • receives from the head reports on the work done;
  • makes decisions in any unforeseen situations, in the event of critical changes that may affect the timing and cost of the project.

Senior managers are usually appointed to the role of consultants. They determine global goals, and then appoint a project manager who already distributes tasks among team members.

raci liability matrix

I - Informed

In addition to the roles listed, an “informed person” (“observer”) is indicated in the RACI matrix. He acts as an administrator and is mainly involved in the organization of workflow. The observer reports to the project manager, however, unlike other participants, is not responsible for its results. Instead, he:

  • collects and systematizes all information on the project, resources and plans;
  • keeps minutes of meetings;
  • accepts documentation from project participants, then to transfer them to the appropriate structures;
  • monitors the timing of submission and the correctness of filling out reports.

Note that communication with the observer is predominantly one-way. Its main function is to save the manager from the need to spend time on bureaucratic procedures and "unload" him.

responsible for the performance of work

Learning to build a RACI matrix using an example

Let's talk about the practical side of the issue. How to create a diagram for the distribution of authority and responsibility?

1. We compose to do-list

First of all, you need to paint everything that needs to be done. The level of detail depends on the specific project. Sometimes, for ease of control and management, several matrices are developed. First, list the main blocks of work, and then break each into separate functions and tasks. The list of works is indicated in the table vertically.

Technical task
Program code
Test Report
Website presentation

2. Select team members

Here you need to answer the question: "Who will be involved in this project?". Horizontally, it is necessary to write out all the employees and / or departments that are involved in the implementation at all stages, from planning to presenting the results and submitting a report.

StagesAnalystDesignerSis. architectDeveloperTesterSis. admin.Project manager
Technical task
Program code
Test Report
Website presentation

3. Fill the table

After that, you can proceed with the distribution of functions. To do this, you need to have a clear idea of ​​each stage of the work and how the work in teams occurs.

Let's take our example as a basis and stop at the "Design" stage. In this case, R - performer - only one. In the process, he focuses on a pre-prepared prototype site. Therefore, the system architect, who was involved in its development, at this stage acts as a consultant to C. The analyst and developer can also express their wishes. The finished design is approved with the project manager (A). But testers and the system administrator at this stage do not make any decisions, but only receive information about how the work is going, and therefore they are assigned the role of the informed ones - I.

StagesAnalystDesignerSis. architectDeveloperTesterSis. admin.Project manager
Technical taskRICCICA
Program codeCICARIII
Website presentationCICCIARI

Varieties of model

In most cases, you can do with a standard matrix. However, when working on more complex projects, sometimes there is a need for additional roles. Therefore, in recent years, 2 extended versions of the liability chart have appeared.


Here two more are added to the standard roles:

  • Verifies (V) - an employee or a special team that checks how the result of the implementation of a particular task meets the approved criteria.
  • Signs off (S) coordinates the delivery of the project with the customer, conducts a presentation and provides reports. Usually this function is performed by the Accountable, but RACI-VS attracts a separate specialist for this.

Thanks to enhanced control and closer contact with the client, this model is optimally suited for technically complex or large-scale projects, on which dozens (or even hundreds) of people work.


In this variant, one new role appears in the matrix - Supportive (S). Its key functions are to provide the project with additional resources, that is, support for the manager and executors.

accountable accountable

Ideal role ratio

The RACI matrix is ​​compiled not only to know who to “repress” in case of any problems. Even at the planning stage, using this table you can see the weaknesses in the organization of the workflow.

Vertical analysis allows you to see the responsibilities and authorities of each of the project participants, objectively assess the level of load:

  • a lot of R - most likely, a person will have to be torn between several tasks, which will negatively affect the speed and results of work;
  • a lot A - the employee "gets the neck" for everyone; It is recommended to distribute responsibility more evenly;
  • there are no R and A cells - an occasion to think about the appropriateness of this position as such (in fact, you pay a specialist who does nothing);
  • there are no empty cells - again, the problem of overloading, not everyone is able to simultaneously perform so many tasks.

Horizontal analysis , in turn, demonstrates the quality of the organization of work at each stage. Here, too, often problems arise:

  • a lot of R - perhaps there is a duplication of functions, and one of the team members performs unnecessary work;
  • a lot of A - there is a "erosion" of responsibility and confusion when submitting projects;
  • a lot of C - discussions significantly slow down the workflow (you need to wait until everyone makes their changes and comments, find compromises, etc.);
  • no I - may be a signal that too many performers are engaged in one task, which also slows down the implementation of the project.

With RACI, a manager can quickly detect overworked or under-employed workers, useless jobs and job sites for which no one is responsible. A well-composed matrix can significantly improve the quality of organization and control over the implementation of projects, as well as reduce the number of conflicts between performers ("I don’t do this at all ...", "That he should have done ...", etc.).

RACI Matrix

Useful Tips

In order for the RACI matrix to fulfill its functions and ensure effective uninterrupted work in the company, there are several important points to keep in mind.

  1. When filling out the table, consider the qualifications of the employees. So, an accountant should not be appointed as a consultant (C) at the stage of site layout, at least because he does not understand this area.
  2. Each site should have only one Accountable (A). If there are several, indicate the conditions. For example, A1 is responsible for testing the desktop version of the site, and A2 is mobile.
  3. Any task must have Accountable and Responsible (in translation - "Responsible" and "Contractor").
  4. Try to formulate each task as specifically as possible. Use the verbs - "publish", "prepare", "write", "check", "update", etc. It is advisable to immediately indicate the necessary results - not just "Check the site’s loading speed", but "Make sure the loading speed site no more than 0.8 sec. "
  5. Actions should be applied not to a specific employee, but to the position as a whole.
  6. It is better to compose the RACI matrix in a team, based on the analysis of real working situations. It is important that each participant is aware of their role and the challenges they face.

Source: https://habr.com/ru/post/A11573/

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