In private homes, stoves, boilers and fireplaces are often installed, which, despite their difference, have one common detail - the grate. It may differ in its shape, size and material, but its purpose in all designs remains unchanged.
The efficiency of stoves, fireplaces and boilers, as well as their effectiveness, largely depends on whether the element is made correctly, how accurately it is laid in the furnace compartment, and also on the material from which it is made.
Do-it-yourself grate is made with one-piece element, most often cast iron is used for its production. There are holes in the grill of the structure, due to which air is drawn to the fuel.
The part is laid in such a way that the holes of the grill are directed from opening the door to the rear wall. For large-sized combustion compartments, several grates are required.
It is quite possible to make a grate with your own hands. It is an important element in the furnace compartment, thanks to which it is possible to obtain efficient fuel combustion. The designs of modern furnaces and boilers are constantly changing, the details are being improved. But there is a functional element that cannot be dispensed with. This element is the grate.
The grate serves to maintain wood, coal and fuel briquettes. Through its openings, ash is poured down, making room for a new batch of firewood. Grate bars differ in their design and are made of various materials.
What to make grate
For the manufacture of a grate, fireproof steel and cast iron are used in the furnace. Since the grate is constantly subjected to combustion, cast iron is considered the best option for its manufacture.
Even the strongest steel is damaged over time due to exposure to constant fire. And the combustion temperature of coal is considered one of the highest among all types of fuel. It is for this reason that cast iron is chosen for the manufacture of a grate. Steel material under the influence of high temperature has the ability to oxidize, and further it rusts and breaks down.
The size of the grate depends on the fuel that will be used in the future. For use in everyday life, two designs are recommended - solid and composite.
The first option consists of a cast iron grate, which is selected according to the size of the furnace compartment. The second type is assembled from individual elements.
The size of the composite grate is determined in the same way as the whole grate according to the size of the furnace. In addition to species differences, the devices are divided by functional functions.
The design of the cast-iron grating can be of two types: full-swing and swinging. In the first case, the elements have the ability to rotate horizontally 180 degrees, which allows you to dump ash and slag.
This design involves a groove in the furnace for additional holes. It is extremely difficult to make a full-rotary system at home.
In the second design, the elements have lullabies of motion, rotation occurs around at an angle of 30 degrees. This system has the ability to loosen accumulated slag.
By design, the grate is chain and pipe. In the first case, the model resembles a conveyor belt. In the second, it is made of pipes, has a cooling function.
The cooled grate consists of a cast coil, which is made of cast iron. This type is used in the water heating system and pipe water supply. A coolant circulates inside the cooled grate. Cooling is used when burning coal, since its temperature is a thousand degrees.
Types of cast iron grate
Cast iron grate also has several types. The tile grill has a rectangular model installed in the opening of the boiler, stove or fireplace. This type is considered universal in operation. A basket type grate is ideal for an open hearth that is intended for cooking.
Such a model is currently practically not used. The beam grill consists of a single or double element, which in its design resembles a building beam.
Beam cast iron grate is used to install custom designs. There is also a movable grill. It got its name due to the fact that its model is able to change the width of the gaps. The movable grill is most often used for continuous operation.
Making a grate at home
You can make a grate with your own hands only from steel, since it is almost impossible to make a construction from cast iron at home.
For work, it is better to choose fireproof steel, but this is not a prerequisite. It is necessary to consider what type of fuel the grill will be made for, its size depends on it.
For coal, a construction of 300x300 mm or 350x300 mm is suitable, and for burning wood, the size of the grate will be from 140x120 mm to 300x225 mm.
Using simple iron, it is necessary to plan the stages of work so that in the end the lattice turns out to be quite thick. Steel strips and fittings can be used. Before proceeding with the manufacture of a grate with your own hands, it is necessary to take dimensions in advance. The next step is the manufacture of the frame.
The frame is considered the basis for the installation of the grate; in the future, parallel elements are welded to it. It is important to choose the correct distance between the elements in the frame. Here it is necessary to take into account that the ash does not leak through the holes, and the air can circulate freely to maintain combustion.
The holes in the grate should not occupy more than 40% of its area. Do not forget that compliance with safety regulations has not been canceled. It is worth taking care of clothes and shoes in advance, especially at the stage of welding work.
Metal tends to expand at high temperatures, so the grate must be installed with a small gap of not more than 5 millimeters in each direction.
In the furnace hole, the ledge needs to be chipped, the grate itself will be located on it in the future. In a brick oven, the place for the grate is mainly chosen below the opening of the furnace door by one brick. This must be taken into account so that burning firewood and coals do not fall on the floor.
At the installation stage, it is not necessary to tightly install the grates, since when heated, the material is capable of deformation. This can lead to product breakdown and cracking in the oven itself.
It is also necessary to consider if triangular rods are installed in the grate, then it must be laid down down with triangles.
The fuel material must be completely burned, and to achieve this goal it is necessary that the optimum amount of oxygen is supplied. Therefore, the total area of the distance between the gratings is not more than 60% of the total area of the grate. If the distance is less, a small stream of air will enter the stove, this will not be enough to maintain the combustion process in the furnace compartment.
With a large distance between the grids, the fuel material will fall, not having time to burn out. This will lead to an increase in the consumable for combustion.
The cast iron grate for the furnace provides good traction, it is used for burning firewood, coal and fuel briquettes. Cast iron still occupies a leading position in the manufacture of grates. Since it is the least susceptible to deformation at high temperatures.
For the manufacture of gratings, a fixed beam structure is most often selected in the boiler. This is a composite model, which is based on a square or a rectangle of four beams.
This square must be made according to the size of the furnace compartment, in which the grate will be operated. Small beams are welded at its base, and the distance between them must also be taken into account. It should be such that the material does not fall during the combustion process, and the burnt residues can easily seep through these openings.
When creating grates for boilers or stoves with your own hands, you need to consider for what purposes they are planned. After that, it remains only to clarify the dimensions depending on the furnace compartment. Even a novice can cook a similar design, observing safety precautions and adhering to recommendations.