The completion of the construction of the house does not mean that the work process has come to an end. A further goal is the decoration of the premises and, most importantly, the insulation work. The scale of these events is not so extensive, but requires a delicate approach and compliance with technological nuances. The most responsible stage of thermal insulation. The energy-saving function of the house and the comfort of the microclimate depend on the quality of its performance. To realize floor insulation in a private house with your own hands will not be difficult if you choose the right material and installation technique. To date, this work can be done in various ways. Materials with an insulating function are represented by natural raw materials, synthetic coatings, as well as bulk components.
Mineral wool insulation
This is the traditional and most popular option of thermal insulation at home. The material is presented on the market by plates that can have varying degrees of hardness and resistance to deformation processes. Laying is done on the floor or in several layers, or in one, but with the use of thick panels. The choice of the optimal solution should be made based on the requirements not only for the heat-insulating effect, but also guided by moisture protection. If thermal insulation of the floor with mineral wool is carried out in a building without a basement, then special requirements for waterproofing should not be made. But when laying on the foundation with basic preparation of the coating, the plates should be treated with a hydrophobic compound, which reduces the function of water absorption.
Fixation of the material is also carried out in the usual way. Depending on the type of coating, you can use adhesive products or nails with self-tapping screws. Also, some manufacturers of mineral wool offer special brackets and fasteners for a more reliable installation. As a result, the user can rely on an average coefficient of thermal conductivity, good sound insulation and the function of a fire-resistant barrier.
Perhaps this is the second most popular material for insulation. It is for the insulation of the floor covering that it is recommended to use expanded polystyrene of the PSB-S brand. This version of the 35 series is suitable for arranging the floor in the living room of a private house. But if you want to create insulation in the harsh operating conditions of the flooring, you should refer to the 50 series. Such floor insulation with expanded polystyrene can be performed even in a garage where loads from the car are assumed. Installation of the insulator is simple. The plates have a different format, for example, a width of 50-60 cm and a length of up to 120 cm. They are easy to process, adjust to the configuration of the room.
You should also pay attention to the edges. The most practical version with a milled edge for overlapping using the groove-comb technique. This method is beneficial by eliminating cold bridges. In terms of performing the insulation function, floor insulation with expanded polystyrene is one of the best options. However, mastics and various resins with the addition of organic solvents have a detrimental effect on this material, so when using the floor, you should be careful with its processing.
Application of expanded clay in thermal insulation
Thermal insulation expanded clay is produced in the form of porous light granules based on fired clay. It is advisable to use a fraction of 1-2 cm to warm the flooring. The presence of such a layer in the floor structure will provide three functions at once: thermal insulation, screed formation and gravel cushion. But to perform these tasks, good waterproofing may be required, since expanded clay has a drawback due to high water absorption. Typically, floor insulation with expanded clay is performed in layers with tamping of each subsequent embankment to obtain a 15-centimeter layer.
It is rarely possible to calculate the exact consumption of granular material, so it is better to pre-order 10% more of the planned volume. Also, to facilitate the installation and strengthening of the formed base, it is recommended to fasten expanded clay with cement. That is, a dry compacted layer of granules is poured with a liquid cement mixture. Other methods of floor insulation with expanded clay with the inclusion of a bonding element are also practiced, but the classic cement base is the most effective. With its help, a solid base is formed, which can be used both as a screed and as a heater.
Expanded clay insulation in bags
Those who want to get a quick result with expanded clay, not to make much effort, should prefer packing in bags. Actually, the further formation of the heat-insulating base will be carried out by them at the rate of 3 bags per 1 m 2 . The formed free niches should also be covered with expanded clay, and then holes should be made in the bags to release air. It is important to consider that floor insulation with expanded clay in bags will allow you to organize an insulating layer of no more than 20 cm. Such a height may not be enough to maintain thermal comfort in the living room, but it will be enough for the same garage or utility room. However, if necessary, you can make an additional embankment with a rise of 10 cm.
Granulated Slag Insulation
This is another option for creating thermal insulation using bulk material. Granulated slag has a glass-like structure and is represented by grains with a fraction of 0.7 to 1 cm. It is produced in the process of cooling metallurgical slag, which, in turn, is a product of cast iron melting. From the point of view of operation, the material is quite attractive both as a heater and as a mechanically strong base. You can do floor insulation in a private house with your own layers, but only on a flat surface. As in the case of expanded clay, waterproofing should be provided. But this is relevant only if the water level near the house is elevated and there is no special drainage. The calculation of the slag volume can be as follows: 300 kg of material per 1 m 2 of a 40 cm thick insulation layer. The advantages of this method include: good thermal insulation and the absence of the need for compaction.
Foam glass for warming
It has already been noted more than once that the material for thermal insulation may also include special waterproofing. If this issue is acute, then it makes sense to pay attention to the foam glass. This is the same insulation, however, its foamed glass melt with a closed cellular structure is absolutely impermeable to water and moisture. If you plan to warm the floor in a private house with your own hands, then it makes sense to make a choice in favor of blocks whose thickness can vary from 5 to 18 cm. It is better to refuse the foam crumbs, since it is more difficult to install, and there may be additional insulation requirements. Otherwise, foamglass is perhaps the best option. The layer of such insulation does not deform, does not burn, protects the room from water and water vapor. True, the price of foam glass is higher than alternative materials.
Features of insulation of a wooden coating
It is advisable to select a heater that is close in quality to a wooden flooring. It can be any of the natural materials. Laying is carried out on soil or logs. The implementation of a special crate is a prerequisite in most coatings from boards, therefore, it is possible to insulate a wooden floor in a private house in the same configuration. The lower part of the overall structure will be represented by the foundation, then there may be a gravel embankment, then a crate with a heat insulator and a plank coating.
Features of thermal insulation of concrete floor
Two types of concrete base insulation are used. As a rule, the screed itself is insulated. Usually the material settles in the upper part after pouring the cement pad. But there may be an option in which lower insulation of the floor screed is made using the same polystyrene foam. In this case, the slabs are arranged for preparation of gravel or logs. After this, concrete mortar is poured. From the point of view of thermal insulation of the entire house, it is the second option that is more effective, but to ensure a comfortable microclimate in one room it is worthwhile to limit yourself to upper insulation, which is more likely designed to protect the decorative flooring from the cold.
Ground floor insulation
The use of insulation on the ground implies high requirements for the selection of a suitable material. This should be a mechanically resistant insulator, which is also able to protect the object from moisture and the development of microbiological negative phenomena, including mold and fungi. When calculating how to perform floor insulation in a private house with your own hands on the ground, you should abandon natural materials. Polystyrene boards protected by a waterproofing insulator will be the best solution. To prevent physical damage, you should initially focus on thick panels that are resistant to natural deformations.
Thermal insulation of the floor is the most important event in the performance of construction and finishing works. Modern materials used for insulation of floor coverings, can provide comfortable conditions and reduce heating costs. Another thing is that in practice the return on insulators can be different, and the result does not always live up to expectations. Much depends on the quality of the installation of the material, on the characteristics of the insulation itself, as well as on insulation in other areas of the house. For example, without proper protection from the cold of the roof and walls, the effectiveness of floor insulation will be minimal. Only in the complex can a favorable thermal regime be created with the help of warming elements.