Today, Russia has opened quite a lot of enterprises for screwdriver assembly of automobiles of famous brands, as well as its own industrial giants with a full cycle of auto production. Amid economic growth, the number of cars produced is increasing annually. But despite this, many drivers want to drive a car in Europe or the United States. And as you know, all products imported from outside the Customs Union must undergo customs clearance. Customs clearance of a car is the very barrier that frightens away those who want to buy a car abroad and makes them turn their eyes towards the domestic auto industry. But if you approach this issue with knowledge of the matter, then you can become the owner of a high-quality machine for relatively little money. This article answers common questions and dispels myths regarding customs clearance of cars in Russia.
In accordance with the EAEU Customs Code, all goods crossing the border of the Economic Union are subject to customs clearance, unless otherwise provided by legislative acts of the customs union. Thus, the importer is obliged to pay the import customs duty to the state treasury. In the case of importing a car, the size of the duty varies widely and depends on the size of the engine, the condition of the car and other factors. If a special (exclusive) car, for example, a rare one, is imported, the importer must apply to the regional representative office of the chamber of commerce with a request to conduct an examination and determine the value of the imported goods in order to determine the import customs duty.
Customs legislation often changes dynamically. And therefore, in order not to violate the import rules and not run into penalties, before buying and clearing a car, you must carefully familiarize yourself with the import rules at the official resource of the regional customs.
Responsibility for violation of import regulations
Owners of cars from abroad that have not passed customs clearance can be held liable, even criminally. An individual has exactly one day (24 hours) from the moment the duty object crossed the border of one of the countries of the Customs Union to deliver the car to the temporary storage warehouse at the customs control zone. If, for any reason, the goods have not been placed under the customs clearance procedure, the status of contraband goods is automatically assigned to the car. This means that the car will be confiscated, and the owner himself will incur administrative or criminal liability (depending on the size of the damage).
That is why when buying a used car from hand, you must carefully read the documentation. If a car from Europe did not pass through customs clearance, then you should immediately refuse to purchase it: it will cost you more. You can have huge problems with the law.
In what cases is import duty not charged?
Subject to certain conditions of import and operation of the car, customs clearance of a car may not be carried out. Many people are trying to use such loopholes in the law, thereby significantly reducing the cost of purchasing a car. According to most experts in the field of delivery of cars from abroad, it is better to do such things. But, on the other hand, the law is not violated, which means that it is possible to delay or even avoid paying the import duty. But often the amount of this tax is more than half of the cost of imported cars.
So, if a car is imported for a certain time (up to a year inclusively), and not forever, then it is allowed not to go through the procedure of customs clearance of a car. From Germany is the largest flow of cars. And most of them are imported on a temporary basis.
There are people who are embarking on the next adventure: they make a car on the territory of neighboring states. However, according to the rules, such a machine can stay in the territory of the Customs Union for no more than six months. If the car belongs to a citizen of the country - then up to one year inclusive.
Duty free cars manufactured in the EAEU member countries or imported and registered from third countries before 2010 are not subject to duty.
Another way not to pay the fee is to obtain a residence permit in the country from which the car is imported (for example, in Germany). Customs clearance of a car from abroad in this case is not carried out. But, as is clear, this option is very ambiguous. Since not everyone can get a residence permit.
Import of vehicles from Germany to Russia: customs clearance of cars
When importing a car by an individual for his own needs, at the customs clearance point it is necessary to fill out and submit to the tax inspector a TD-6 declaration. In this case, the car is checked in as baggage. If the car is delivered in a container with other cars, then a goods declaration is drawn up on it. In this case, all the efforts to deliver the goods to customs and the preparation of the necessary documentation will be undertaken by the carrier.
Prior to passing the customs control, the owner of the cargo makes an advance payment to the account of the customs authority. The specialist issues a receipt and a certificate of receipt of funds to the current account. If the import duty does not exceed the advance payment made by the owner of the goods, then the customs authorities are obliged to return the surplus within the specified time.
If you draw up the documents correctly, then customs clearance of the car will not take much time. But if violations were made, then the process may drag on indefinitely. But every day the parking of the vehicle is paid according to the price list of the owner of the temporary storage warehouse.
By the way, the procedure for importing vehicles into Ukraine is not much different from that adopted in the countries of the customs union. But, judging by the reviews of residents of Ukraine, customs duties on the import of cars from the United States are much lower than those established in our state. So, it is profitable for Ukrainians to import cars.
At the point of customs clearance, the inspector will request the following documents:
- An application addressed to the head of customs about placing the vehicle under customs procedures.
- Bill of lading and other documents provided by the consignor (seller).
- A document with information on the introduction of monetary support for customs procedures.
- Filled in the form of customs declaration.
- Notification of the arrival of the vehicle in the customs control zone (at the temporary storage warehouse).
- Vehicle insurance policy.
If all documents are available and executed in compliance with the law, the customs officer issues a permit for further procedures.
How is the duty paid?
Even before the start of the cleaning procedure, the owner of the goods makes an advance payment to pay the import duty. The structure of the duty on the import of a car includes a recycling fee and a customs fee. It should be borne in mind that the time from the moment of advance payment to the moment of receipt of funds to the account of customs authorities can be very significant. Therefore, you should not hesitate in this matter: you need to pay as soon as possible.
What determines and how the advance payment is calculated
Without prepayment of customs services, the car will not even reach the internal customs terminal: it is wrapped right on the border of a neighboring state. This is a kind of guarantee, which guarantees payment by the owner of the cargo of all necessary fees. By the way, a pledge can be made out not only in cash, but also in the form of property belonging to the person who imports the goods.
In the case when the customs value of the imported car is not exactly known, the size of the advance payment is determined roughly (approximately) based on the average cost of cars of this price category.
If the consignee can provide the customs authorities with documents confirming the exact cost of the goods and their technical and economic parameters, then customs officers will calculate the exact amount of the advance payment, which will fully cover the import duty.
How much is a customs clearance of a car
Quite often, unpleasant situations occur at the customs, when the owner of the car cannot pay the import duty. Such goods are seized and not released. The reason for this is the haste in the desire to quickly get behind the wheel of a presentable car. Before you go to pick up the car, you must carefully weigh the pros and cons. It is possible and even necessary, if there is no experience and relevant knowledge, to contact an organization that will advise on all issues of customs legislation and warn against errors.
A preliminary assessment will help implement the online calculation tool for the approximate amount of import duties. It is difficult to say how much the customs clearance of a car will pull. So, cars after an accident are imported at one price, and new cars from the passenger compartment - at a completely different price. But as a rule, the import duty rarely drops below 30% of the value of the imported car.
Throughout the vast territory of the EAEU from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, uniform rules for the import of cars by individuals apply. In this case, the legislation does not provide any benefits. So, customs clearance of a car from Japan is carried out in the same manner and using the same procedures as cars from Germany or the USA. The cost of cars of one class will also be the same. Perhaps cars from Japan and the United States will cost the final buyer a little more expensive due to the complex and lengthy transportation by sea.