Reasoning speech: methods of persuading people, thoughtful text and good examples

Such a phenomenon as persuasion is applicable in almost all areas of life. The purpose of an argumentative speech is to convince the interlocutor of the validity of a certain action, conclusion or decision, as well as to prove and justify the falsity or truthfulness of a particular theory. In the process of speaking, it is important that the speaker’s speech is subordinate to the substantiation of justice or truth of the main thesis, to the conviction of the audience in the fidelity of the ideas expressed.

Persuasion and suggestion: what is the difference?

Group conversation

In the course of the speaker’s presentation with an argumentative speech, it may seem to the listener that the speaker wants to impose specific attitudes and thoughts. In order not to confuse these concepts in the future, we propose to consider them separately. Belief is the transfer of a particular attitude or information to another person. Let's take an example from a life situation when parents or teachers urge to be honest, to help those who need it. In the process of argumentative speech, whether it is a scientific argument or a simple everyday situation, the listener comprehends the speaker’s point of view and decides whether to agree with what has been said or not. Thus, persuasion is a conscious process of perceiving information and accepting it as one’s own attitude.

Suggestion, in contrast to persuasion, is considered a more aggressive psychological impact, with the help of which you can impose a certain attitude on your opponent, bypassing his critical thinking and consciousness. As a rule, the process itself occurs with the help of pressure or hypnosis, which implies an impact through the subconscious, and the suggestion can only absorb information.

Types of public speaking


Public speaking always involves revealing a specific topic. The method of disclosure, as a rule, depends on the type of speech, which are divided into:

  • Informative type of speech - aimed at transmitting basic information in the form of an announcement, report, lecture, message, annotation.
  • Epideutic speech - used in solemn occasions. The main goal of the speaker is to rally and inspire the audience.
  • The argumentative type of speech is aimed at convincing the correctness of any opinion. Its purpose is to prove the speaker is right and to convince the audience to agree with one or another opinion on the controversial issue.

Methods and techniques of persuasion

To date, in the educational and scientific literature, you can find a lot of active methods of argumentative speech. To make your speech brighter and more convincing, you need to master some techniques. We suggest considering methods of persuading an argumentative speech with examples of texts that are the most popular and significant in business interpersonal communication.

Fundamental method

The essence of this method is a direct appeal to the interlocutor, where an important aspect is the provision of facts, which are the basis of evidence. The main role in this method is played by statistical data and digital examples, which is perfect as a confirmation of the main points. It is worth noting that in any business conversation, the provision of numbers is always much more attractive to the opponent than words. Using statistical data in a conversation, it is important to observe the measure: excessive digital information can tire the listeners. It is also worth noting that carelessly processed statistical material can mislead viewers. We give an example of reasoned speech, according to the fundamental method, which can misinform the audience.

The dean of the university provides statistics on graduates. It follows from them that at the time of defense of the thesis, fifty percent of the students were in an interesting position. Such statistics are impressive, but after it turns out that of the speakers there were only two girls, and one of them was pregnant at that time. In this regard, for statistical material to be illustrative, it is necessary to cover a large number of phenomena, events, people.

Comparison method

Performance on stage

This method will be effective if the comparisons are well and carefully selected. Comparisons give the speaker a great power of suggestion and exceptional brightness. With the help of comparisons with phenomena and objects that are well known to the opponent, the statement can be made more significant and significant. Consider examples of texts of the argumentative speech of this method:

  • "Many scientists compare Antarctica with the Sahara, and all because they are united by a low rainfall - one centimeter per year."
  • “Living in Africa can be compared to being in a furnace, where water is also missing.”

Contradiction method

It is used less often in reasoned speech and, in essence, is defensive. This method is based on the identification of contradictions in the arguments, as well as the argumentation of the opponent and focus on them.

The method "yes, but ..."

As a rule, this method is used in cases where the interlocutor already has a biased negative opinion on any account. The “yes, but ...” method allows you to consider the issue from different angles. For example, an employee came to the boss demanding wages - otherwise he would quit. He argues this in the following way: that in other institutions they pay much more for such work, that it is difficult for a family person to live, etc. After listening to a subordinate, the head replies: "All this is true, but you did not take into account several factors: in the market there are few vacancies in this specialty, but there are enough specialists in this field, which indicates the difficulty of finding a job in a similar place, and I must agree that our salaries are small, but we provide a full social package, unlike many many companies. " After such a reasoned speech, the subordinate has no choice but to agree with the employer.

Boomerang method

When used correctly and with a fair amount of wit, this method provides the opportunity to use the “weapon” of the interlocutor against himself. This method does not contain the power of evidence, but helps to have a strong impact on the audience. As an example, consider the situation in the life of a famous poet: at one of his speeches in front of the residents of Moscow and its districts Mayakovsky was asked: “Who are you by nationality? Since you are from Baghdati, you can respectively assume that you are Georgian, right?” In turn, Vladimir Vladimirovich answered: "That's right, among Georgians I am Georgian, with Russians I am Russian, and among Germans I would be German." At this time, the next question "And among the fools?" To which Mayakovsky calmly replied: "And among the fools I am the first time."

Dismemberment method

Ability to make arguments

In the classification of active methods of argumentative speech, experts single out this method, which is used quite often in the process of dialogue, discussion and conversation. Its essence is counterargument: the analysis of the opponent’s words in parts, some of which are criticized, others are approved. During the conversation, it is necessary to pay attention to the interlocutor’s reaction, his response to the assessment and, guided by it, isolate the weak points and break the monologue into clearly distinguishable parts: “this is wrong”, “this is for sure” and more. As an example, we give the following text of a reasoned speech: “I completely agree with you about the quality of work of the new warehouse, but there are also moments that are doubtful: difficulties in obtaining raw materials, long delays in deliveries, slowness of administration.”

Ignore method

The essence of this method is as follows: in the case when any fact stated by the opponent cannot be refuted, it can simply be ignored. It seems to a person that his interlocutor attaches importance to what, in his opinion, is not so important. In this case, it is necessary to state this and analyze.

Visible support method

Communication people

This method requires more thorough preparation, it is advisable to use it in those cases when you act as an opponent. The bottom line is this: for example, during the discussion, the interlocutor outlined the facts, evidence and arguments on a particular topic, and now it's your turn. But it is worth considering that at the beginning of your speech you do not mind or contradict him at all. In addition, it is welcome to help, citing new arguments in his favor. But all this must be done solely for visibility. After the interlocutor and the audience relaxed, you can proceed to counterattack. An approximate scheme looks like this: “I fully agree with you. However, in support of your thesis, you did not mention some facts ... (you need to list which ones), but that is not all, because ... ”Next comes the turn of your weighty evidence, facts, and counterarguments.

Writing Features

The purpose of both oral and written reasoned speech is to convince the interlocutor of the correctness of a particular situation, to force him to accept certain opinions, views. The content of the arguments is divided into groups:

  • Logical - directed to the mind of the interlocutor. For example, it can be quotes from authoritative sources, scientific axioms, statistics, provisions of official documents and laws, as well as examples from life or fiction.
  • Psychological - can cause the recipient certain emotions, feelings, emotions that form any relation to the described subject, phenomenon, person. It can be: references to authoritative sources, emotional conviction of the writer, examples that can cause the emotional response of the addressee (honor, compassion, conscience, duty, etc.).

The structure of written speech lies in the main thesis, flowing smoothly into the main arguments and ends with a clear and concise conclusion.

General rules

Performance to the public

To succeed in oratory, you must adhere to several important rules for effective reasoning:

  • To begin, create a text of an argumentative speech in which the thesis will be clearly and clearly formulated.
  • After that, it is worth analyzing the situation from various angles and preparing the maximum number of arguments.
  • Before convincing others that you are right, you must first convince yourself.
  • Try to side with the audience or potential recipient, predict their possible counterarguments and prepare a competent argumentative answer.
  • Try to combine rational and emotional arguments.
  • Do not pile up argumentative speech with redundant elements: you must avoid using a tautology, as well as the use of extra words or phrases.
  • Check the argumentative text for logical errors.
  • The most universal arguments should be used.
  • When giving an argumentative speech, the topics of which can be diverse, it is important for the audience to remember the rule of selectivity of arguments, since the basis of any belief is specially selected facts, taking into account education, social status, gender and age, level of knowledge, interests, religious and political position of interlocutors. It is worth noting that the same argument cannot be one hundred percent effective for every person.

In addition to the above, the following three rules of famous sages, which were used many centuries ago, and also found application in modern art of persuasion, are highly effective.

Homer's Rule

The rule of the ancient poet is to carefully prepare for the upcoming conviction and select exclusively high-quality arguments in their favor. As a rule, they can be conditionally divided into strong, medium and weak. Homer’s rule says: you need to start the conviction with the strong, after which you can add a few averages, and the strongest argument should be the final one. As for the weak, it is better not to use them at all. To achieve a positive result, do not start your speech with what you want to get from the audience and what it should do. Such actions can cause rejection of the public, so it is worth giving arguments in the specified sequence.

The rule of Socrates

Probably, many are familiar with the rule of "three yes", the founder of which was Socrates - a sage who was fluent in the art of persuasion. The essence of this rule is to formulate questions in such a way that the interlocutor will not be able to answer negatively. This method helps to skillfully bring the interlocutor to the independent adoption of someone else's point of view.

Pascal's rule

This rule states the importance of preserving the face of your interlocutor. In other words, one should not drive an opponent into a corner, humiliate a person’s dignity in conviction, infringe on the authority and freedom of his person. As Pascal himself said: "Nothing disarms like the conditions of honorable surrender." Therefore, do not forget that beliefs in a negative way do not work.

Persuasion effectiveness

Speaker's emotionality

Undoubtedly, using active methods of argumentative speech, it is necessary to find an approach to each interlocutor. A carefully organized process to influence a specific person or audience, with the right selection of persuasive methods, in most cases should bring the desired results. But it is worth noting that not all people are persuasive. Numerous studies have shown that the following are not amenable to impact:

  • Persons with a "poor" fantasy who are not capable of a vivid perception of emotional images and are not endowed with a wealth of imagination.
  • Closed and closed people with their characteristic manifestation of signs of alienation.
  • Such individuals for whom their own experiences are more important than the problems of a group of people.
  • Interlocutors with pronounced signs of aggression, as well as with a clear need for power over others.
  • People who show open hostility to others.
  • People with paranoid tendencies are considered one of the most difficult people to convince (such persons are characterized by excessive suspicion, aggression to various actions of others, the formation of overvalued, and sometimes inadequate, ideas). To them, experts include people with pronounced antisocial behavior.


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