In Russia over a long period of time, the following practice in the field of metrology existed: permissible norms were established only by relevant government decrees. There was a growing need for an appropriate law in this area. This was done in 1993. The Law "On ensuring the uniformity of measurements" was adopted.
The main objectives of this normative act:
- protection of the legitimate interests and rights of citizens of the Russian Federation in accordance with applicable law in the field of measurement results;
- assistance and support at the state level to economic and scientific-technical progress by the introduction of reference units, acting as a guarantor of the accuracy of the application of the obtained standards;
- creating a favorable climate for the development of international relations;
- formation of a unified system of standards for the unimpeded release, sale, operation, repair of measuring instruments made in the Russian Federation and imported from abroad;
- gradual adjustment of the measuring structure used in Russia to international standards.
Calibration of measuring instruments according to 44-FZ
Let us consider this concept in more detail. Calibration of measuring instruments is a set of all actions that are performed by the State Metrological Service or other organizations of a similar profile. To carry out activities, these institutions must have special permission and authority. The activities of organizations are aimed at confirming the conformity of
the measuring instrument with the requirements established by law. The main goal of the activity is to determine the characteristics of the equipment under study, compare them with the values established by the regulations. As a result of the assessment, a conclusion is made about the possibility / impossibility of using it for the purpose indicated in the documentation. Calibration of measuring instruments performed by an authorized body
or organization is carried out using special metrological quantities. These parameters are determined experimentally. Subject to verification are all new measuring instruments manufactured according to relevant standards, which are in operation, as well as devices that have undergone repair influences. The need to carry out these activities extends without fail to the standards used in the field of state regulation (GROEI). Equipment used in other areas is tested on a voluntary basis.
Calibration of measuring instruments is carried out by employees of special accredited metrological services. The staff must undergo appropriate training, at the end of which a special certificate is issued. Only then can employees carry out such specialized work. Non-state enterprises, unlike state-owned enterprises, have the right to independently and without restrictions choose the body by which the verification of measuring instruments will be carried out. The organization and procedure for conducting the assessment is fixed at the legislative level. Based on the competition, state and municipal institutions are required to conclude contracts for the implementation of the activities under consideration by authorized structures. In cases where the result of the assessment is positive, a corresponding certificate is issued or a special mark is applied (there are other ways provided by law).
On the technical side, verification of measuring instruments is a procedure for comparing a physical quantity (in numerical terms) obtained using the equipment under test with a reference value. The parameters taken as the basis of comparison (reference) are obtained as a result of repeatedly carried out evaluations by high-precision serviceable devices. There is a limitation: the error of the standard must be at least three times less than the error of the measuring instrument undergoing verification. In accordance with applicable law, such devices may be subject to initial, planned, unscheduled and inspection assessments.
Initial calibration of measuring instruments is carried out for all devices classified by type, shipped from production, repaired or imported from another state. There is a time limit on the validity of the assessment. It is relevant only within the framework of the approved type certificate for each device. Two types of verification are used: selective and each copy. The most common is the second option. Exceptions not subject to initial verification may be funds imported from abroad within the framework of international agreements. Contracts in this case impose an obligation to evaluate and award an international certificate to foreign manufacturers. Initial verification of measuring instruments is carried out at special control points organized by specialized agencies. For convenience and time saving, most of these items are located directly at the equipment manufacturing plants or repair shops. The results of such verification are valid for a certain time - the inter-verification period.
Such verification of measuring instruments (operated or stored) is carried out at strictly specified time intervals. For each individual industry, its own special intervals have been developed, within which it is necessary to conduct an assessment. For example, calibration of medical measuring instruments is performed more often than calibration of roulettes in cartography. Moreover, unused devices that are in a state of long-term storage, subject to certain rules (integrity of seals, packaging, storage in one place, etc.) may not be evaluated. When comparing, the owner (user) of the tested product is obliged to provide it in working condition with a full set of documents attached to it: passport, instructions for use, documents on the last calibration (if any) and all components that are provided by the manufacturer. The bodies evaluating the equipment are required to keep a full record of the results of all their actions. Conclusions may be the basis for adjusting the inter-check interval.
However, this correction is possible only in exceptional cases and only with the consent of the State Metrological Service. In controversial issues arising in this situation, the final decision is made by the State Scientific and Technical Center. In most cases, the planned verification of measuring instruments is carried out on the territory of the owner (user) of the equipment of the authorized body. Moreover, the right to choose the place of assessment belongs to the user, taking into account his production and economic capabilities. In megacities, transportation of equipment to the place of assessment can have a significant impact. Therefore, for example, calibration of measuring instruments in Moscow in some cases can be performed on the territory of the manufacturer or user.
The frequency of such verification does not have a clear time frame. The following cases may serve as indications for its implementation:
- the mark is damaged;
- lost verification certificate;
- commissioning after prolonged storage;
- carried out a reconfiguration or adjustment;
- the occurrence of errors in the work or due to shock.
The purpose of this type of assessment is to identify the suitability of the tested devices for performing metrological control at the state level. Its results are reflected in the relevant act. It is allowed to carry out such verification not in full, which is provided for by the verification procedure.