“Victory loves preparation” - this ancient proverb should be remembered by anyone who is just thinking about implementing at least a little complicated project. This is especially true in the construction of buildings. After all, if high-quality engineering preparation of the construction site has not been carried out, then even the best workers may not correct the situation.
Why is this necessary? Implementation of the training allows you to most effectively organize the construction process, as well as provide a safe environment for people working on the site. If you make a list of highlights, it will look like this:
- Fencing of a site of activity and its clearing.
- The construction of temporary structures.
- Work with groundwater and groundwater, the solution of issues of flooding of the territory.
- Drainages and needle filters.
- Lowering the water level.
- Demolition of buildings.
There is no need to rediscover America. If you wish, you can refer to the building rules and regulations in force in the Russian Federation. First of all, SNiPs should be mentioned. In addition, feasible assistance will be provided by the relevant GOSTs, as well as other regulatory documents. This is what, in short, is the engineering preparation of a construction site. Now let's study this object of interest in more detail.
Construction site fencing followed by clearing
In preparing a specific site for the intended work, it must be protected. This also applies to hazardous areas. At the entrance, it is necessary to install information boards, which must necessarily contain information about the name of the object, its scheme, information about the developer, the contractor, the contact details of the person responsible for the activities carried out here, as well as the dates of commencement and expected completion of work are indicated. It is allowed to post additional information. For example, data that allows you to interest potential customers, telling about what and how and for whom it is planned.
In addition, it is necessary that the contractor’s contacts are installed on the guard panels, mobile buildings, cable reels, large-sized tooling elements and other similar objects. Additionally, on the construction site, the installation of bunkers for collecting garbage, points of washing or cleaning the wheels of vehicles is allowed. At the same time, local governments can influence the rate of temporary use of the territory for the needs of the construction team, as well as provide for work that will be carried out outside the zone of activity. Then you need to clear the field of activity.
If there are green spaces and it is planned to use them in the future, then they are transplanted, otherwise they are cut down. When they need to be saved on the spot, they are fenced and surrounded by a fence. Shrubs are removed. The fertile soil layer is cut off and moved to a special place, stored, and then transported to other sites for landscaping.
The construction of temporary structures and buildings
Perhaps everyone who drove past active construction noticed that there are many small buildings. These can be cars made of metal, wood and other materials, often still additionally mounted on wheels. These are living quarters for builders. Some of them can be adapted for domestic, storage or other needs. For example, kitchen and shower. But it is possible that everything necessary will be deployed in the open. That is, the construction of temporary structures and buildings aims to meet the needs of construction. After its completion, they are subject to liquidation. When they are just being built, it is necessary to take into account the moments of land reclamation, transfer of communications, how demolition will be carried out and many other moments. The process of their manifestation has three important aspects:
- Structures and buildings are being erected on site through the use of blanks. For example - modular change houses.
- Structures and buildings are brought into place thanks to freight transport, and then already installed at the place of work. They look like freight containers. This is not surprising! After all, many of them are converted containers.
- Structures and buildings are delivered to the place of activity using a tractor. These cars are usually not very large, but have their own wheels.
It should be noted that the engineering equipment of the construction site does not always imply the presence of this stage. So, it is necessary only when performing a significant amount of work. If you need to work only a few hours, then the builders come for the necessary time, and then leave for home. But if something large is being built (for example, a high-rise building) and there are a large number of visiting workers (from another region) or even work is being carried out at a considerable distance from civilization (a communications tower in the forest, an object in the depths of Siberia), then without temporary structures get along.
Groundwater and groundwater management
In preparation, it is necessary that the engineering and geological conditions of the construction site are evaluated. First and foremost, the hydrological situation is of interest. Here is a list of questions that need to be answered:
- Is there (can be formed) a trap.
- What are the natural seasonal and perennial fluctuations in the groundwater level?
- What technogenic impact on its value will be.
- Groundwater aggressiveness with respect to structural materials. Also of particular interest is the corrosion activity of soils.
But this does not end the assessment of the engineering and geological conditions of the construction site. Theory and practice require consideration of all possible points. This is especially true when waterproofing the house. Otherwise, it turns out that the whole structure is extremely flimsy. For buildings of the first and second classes, it is necessary to ensure high-quality performance of functions for 25 and 15 years, respectively. In this case, it is necessary to take into account not only seasonal and perennial fluctuations in levels, but also the potential flooding of the territory. For buildings of the third class, an assessment is not carried out. What does the engineering preparation of the construction site look like in this case?
Getting an answer to a question
The project should provide for the event that it is likely that an unacceptable deterioration of the physicomechanical properties of the foundation soils will occur, the normal operation conditions of the buried premises will be violated, adverse geological processes and the like will develop. In particular:
- Measures preventing chemical or mechanical suffusion of soils. This drainage, sheet pile, consolidation of earth masses.
- Waterproofing created underground structures.
- Measures limiting the rise in groundwater level, as well as eliminating leakage from water-carrying communications. For this, the same drainage, anti-filtration curtains, special channels for special purposes and so on are used.
- A stationary network of observation wells, which allow monitoring the development of the flooding process, as well as timely eliminating leaks from water-carrying communications.
It should be borne in mind that groundwater (industrial effluents, as an option) can be aggressive in relation to the materials used for buried structures. They can increase the corrosive activity of the soil, for this case it is also necessary to provide for certain measures. Created engineering networks at the construction site should also take into account the specifics of the situation in which you have to work. For example, when the bases are designed, the foundation and other structures are prepared - that is, for work that involves the implementation of activities underground, it is necessary to take into account the pressure from the ground. If you go even lower to the piezometric level of pressure water, then you need to take into account their influence. It is necessary to take into account options with a breakthrough of groundwater in the pits, swelling of the bottom, ascent of the structure.
How to counter this misfortune?
In this case, water reduction helps. When engineering preparations and equipment for construction sites are just being carried out, there should already be a project for the protection of buried and underground structures, as well as dug pits. The most popular means to achieve this goal: drainage, drainage, needle filters, water sink wells. When reducing water, it is necessary to attend to the obstacle to the deterioration of the construction properties of the soils on which the activity is conducted. Of greatest interest here are those located at the base of the structure.
In addition, attention must be paid to the violation of the stability of the slopes of the mine. To do this, grooves and trays are provided that collect underground and surface water and divert them to the sumps, which are located outside the base of the structure. Subsequently, they are pumped to the surface. At the same time, requirements are put forward for the pumps performing this work: a reserve of capacities should be provided. If only one, then 100%. Two and more pumps - 50%. Engineering preparation of a construction site without these simple but important requirements will not be satisfactorily performed.
Drainages and needle filters
If it is impossible to divert water from step-down systems, then it is necessary to install special pumping stations that have tanks. Fortunately, this is quite rare. Largely thanks to simple and at the same time effective technologies that make it possible to withstand this situation. Engineering support of a construction site now, as in antiquity, often involves the use of drains. For example, a trench option can be arranged on a territory free of development.
As some design complications, tubeless drainage can be proposed. It is a trench that is filled with filter material. True, they are provided only for short-term operation, such as on landslide slopes, pits, and so on. You can arrange drainage in the form of an underground gallery. But this is allowed only in cases where any other option is not suitable. In this case, dusting is used for filtering (as in tubular drains) or lining (with porous concrete), where there is a device for filter windows.
But that is not all. You can recall the vacuum drainage, which should be used in granules, provided that the filtration coefficient is less than two meters per day. Needle filters are used, as a rule, in building electrical drainage systems (in poorly permeable soils) and water reduction, but provided that the filtration coefficient does not reach 0.1 m in twenty-four hours.
About demolition of buildings
Engineering preparation of the construction site cannot be considered successful if there is a structure to be destroyed at the place of activity. This is an important and at the same time one of the most dangerous stages. Demolition of buildings must be carried out in compliance with labor safety requirements, in accordance with applicable regulatory documents. For this, various materials and methods can be used, such as explosives, special equipment, etc.
In the first case, it is necessary to expose the cordon of the territory. The moment when an explosion, burning or collapse will be made should be informed to all the people who are on the site, as well as the owners of the surrounding territories. Given the potential danger that a violation of the regime may bring, it is better to overdo it than to regret the resulting losses.
Care must be taken to ensure that work is performed by qualified personnel who know what needs to be done. The easiest way to check is to make sure that there is an appropriate OKVED. Preparation of the construction site is indicated by OKVED code 43.12.
Site preparation is not as easy as it might seem at first glance. Considering that this work is associated with the use of explosives, it is fraught with many dangers, letting untrained people into it is too much frivolity. Engineering preparation of the construction site should be carried out carefully and carefully, even in cases where the object is small and considered safe. After all, even the approach to the performance of duties plays a significant role.
If you are dismissive, you can simply put a can of nails on the edge of the foundation pit, climb into it - the earth will collapse and sharp objects will fly to a person’s head. In other words, it is necessary to plan the area - what, where and how it will lie before use, always clean the area of garbage and provide the construction site with all the necessary facilities.
So it was examined what constitutes engineering preparation of a construction site. Briefly, this topic can be stated only in theory, but in practice it will be necessary to work hard so that the words become the result. After all, construction only at first glance looks like something not so complicated. A high-quality preparation of the area along with the solution of geological issues can drag on for several days, weeks or even months - it all depends on the scale of the object, as well as the natural conditions in which it is implemented. But if you approach wisely, you can do almost everything that is intended.