Each project has goals and implementation steps. The implementation of the project implies the presence of goals, certain types of activities, skills and abilities. At each stage, process control is required. This is a complex, creative art of coordinating all the resources involved in the implementation of the project: human and material.
Project management is a process with unlimited potential. Despite this, all types of actions can be predicted. Throughout the project life cycle, modern management methods and technologies are applied. Purpose: to achieve certain results laid down in composition, volume, cost, quality and time costs in the project. Ultimately, all participants in this process must be satisfied with the result.
The very first and main tool is to determine the content of the project. Here, the concept of a hierarchical structure of work (JIS) is important. Creating the correct present document in theory is simple, but in practice, as a rule, this turns out to be a complex process that requires its own specifics and nuances.
ISR - fully defines the content of the project and focused on its results. To determine the goals and composition of the steps, the technique is excellent: the structure of the decomposition of works (SDR), or in English WBS. This technique is also called CPP, which means a breakdown structure. But most often they use the abbreviation ISR.
As a result of the creative activities of the entire team, an official document is produced explaining the content of the project and its components. Works not included in the WBS are not design ones. The document itself can contain several levels, each element of which is unique, has a code and, according to the rules, should be described in the SDR dictionary.
The methodology by which a hierarchical structure of work is created to achieve success
The value of SRI with the growth of the scale of the problem also increases. This is one of the key success factors. IRS is used for:
- detailing the tasks of the project;
- risk planning, resources, schedules, cost and quality;
- accurate distribution with a clear framework and definition of the responsibility of participants;
- organizations between the participants in the interaction project;
- organization of control on the implementation of work and making changes;
- reporting organization;
- creating a project structure called organizational.
All elements that have a hierarchical structure of work are made in a convenient graphical form. Such a presentation has advantages over the list. Due to the collective work in creating the IRS, the level of communication is increased, the best visibility, monitoring and control is achieved. The information submitted in graphical form allows you to visually cover the entire scheme.
Packages and Dictionaries
An important element that has a hierarchical structure of work - these are packages that include lists of operations necessary to achieve the result of the task. Due to this, the work is carried out without the need for additions. It provides an opportunity to see a realistic assessment and a measurable result. Such a package is quite suitable for transfer to the contractor.
A tangible help for the implementation of the work is played by a special dictionary. It makes it possible to interpret all the elements and terms that have a hierarchical structure of the project, and the manager - to determine the boundaries of responsibility for each team member. This is necessary to avoid duplication of operations.
The dictionary indicates: item numbers; their names; the time allotted for the implementation of a certain operation; the order of actions of the elements; expected result and responsible in each section of the project.
A hierarchical structure of the project is being developed by the whole team using the integration method. All aspects of the project are divided sequentially: goals, results, criteria, achievements, products, functional areas, volumes, technical requirements. The conditions necessary to create a work structure are as follows:
- each element should have its own formulated measurable result;
- each result of an element above is a product of decomposition elements;
- packages and part of operations must be unique.
For the organization of work to be successful, the structure is complete, but not redundant.
Elements of the upper levels must be combined with the entire organizational structure. Elements of the lower level should not have excess dimensions, but are quite sufficient for the implementation of the task and monitoring.
To break down the project results into elements, there are two main approaches: functional and product. At one level, these criteria cannot be combined. However, on different - it is even very advisable. It is also important not to mix managerial and substantive work. A product approach is needed so that the customer can see when and what products the manager will hand over to him. Functional - for the interaction of the manager with the executors and the appointment of those responsible for individual areas of work.
If the organization of work on the project will occur in several stages, you can use the approach based on the cubic structure of the project.
At the upper level, the results are divided based on the stages of the life cycle. After, structuring by project products is performed. At the final stage, work packages are completed according to the functional criterion or according to the types of activity.
To guide the project, the construction of a hierarchical structure of work and all the key information necessary for this is laid down in the charter. Description of meaningful work is done first. After that, you can generate a description of the management unit. It is usually allocated in a conditional module, such as "Project Management System". In addition, at the first level of the hierarchy, modules are formed according to the design documentation and the commissioned object.
Often the project is implemented unprofessionally, ignoring the IRS. Such an approach, at best, will lead to many errors, which will be corrected by a large number of material and physical costs.
In order for the result to be obtained in the form that was originally conceived, while minimizing the resources spent, it is necessary to approach the implementation of the project professionally. This is what the hierarchical structure of work is for — an effective tool for managers.
Decomposition is done so far:
- it will not be possible to realistically assess the timing, risks and cost
- an element can no longer be logically broken.
If an element can be completed quite quickly (up to 10 business days), then the decomposition is considered completed.
- Tasks are set and goals are planned.
- Stage decomposition of goals.
- Operations are determined.
- Planned content.
- Resources are determined.
- Resource Assignment Phase.
- Estimated cost.
- Estimated budget.
- Dates and volumes are estimated.
- A schedule is being compiled.
- A project implementation plan is being developed.
- Relationships are determined.
- Success criteria are determined.
A valuable aid in planning can be economic modeling. A well-developed functional model will reduce the time for detailing operations and elaborate on priority operations in detail.
A sufficient number of methods have been developed to draw up an optimal schedule of work on the project, including: the heuristic approach method and the critical path. Schedules are advantageous to present in the form of a diagram of control points (events of zero length corresponding to the moment of achievement of the result and the onset of important stages in the project). Such a chart reflects the real and planned dates.