Basic individual properties, including the basic principles of relationships in the environment, are laid in the preschool period of childhood, therefore, special attention is paid to the problems of socialization of children in kindergarten. One of the priority trends in the educational process in a preschool institution is considered to be the formation of social and communicative skills in children who are only learning how to connect with others. And the preschool teacher acts as a kind of conductor, providing the requirement for the complete formation of socio-communicative skills in the child. This activity will require the most profound theoretical and factual knowledge and skills. It is worthwhile to learn more about the projects on social and communicative development of the senior group of preschoolers.
The goals of the socio-communicative formation in the preschool educational institution are determined by the Federal State Educational Standard and consist of:
- assisting the growing generation in the adoption of universally recognized moral and ethical values;
- creating circumstances for the interaction of the child and other people, regardless of age;
- providing the basis for increasing the degree of self-sufficiency related to self-regulation, as well as the focus of actions;
- accumulation of the mental and emotional content of the personality (the formation of the ability to empathize, to be sociable, sensitive);
- the formation of safe action skills in society, at home, in nature;
- fostering a respectful, respectful attitude to the family, comrades and the Fatherland.
Achieving the established goals is permissible when carrying out regular work to implement a number of tasks of social and communicative development in the older group in children:
- Speech development. In the 1st and 2nd younger groups, the main tasks of the educator are the formation of motor skills, the development of speech culture, that is, the rapid learning by children of sounds (a, o, e, p, m, b - in 1.5–2 years; and, s, y, f, c, t, d, n, k, g, x - in 2–4 years), and in addition, enrichment of the passive and filling in the active vocabulary of a younger preschooler.
- In the middle group, the emphasis is shifted to the formation of situations for the development of complex speech, that is, the assimilation of generally accepted norms for constructing sentences by retelling situations (according to illustrations, for example). In the senior and preparatory groups, the main emphasis is on the development of the ability to create a conversation with a friend or adult, it is reasonable to compose monologic statements.
- Motivation for various types of activity: fun, work. In the first younger group, for example, children play with themselves or face-to-face with toys (dolls, puzzles, pyramids), but in the second younger and middle group, preschoolers are happy to play in pairs, mini-groups (role-playing, mobile fun). In the preparatory group, children have specific preferences regarding this or that type of work and, having found like-minded people, deliberately unite with them for this or that work. For example, several people play mother’s daughters, water the flowers in a team, fill out the nature calendar, etc. Some of the children who can read will organize readings aloud, and sports fans play the ball. The teacher, involving children in various activities, participates in all activities.
- Self-service skills development. In the younger group, this is work aimed at observing the sequence of dressing on the street before bedtime. With the pupils of the middle group, the teacher minimizes his assistance in these issues of self-care. And in the older and preparatory, the emphasis is on encouraging initiative, that is, the desire or need to wash your hands before the adult reminds you to do it.
- To develop skills of a tolerant attitude to circumstances. So, if a dispute arose in a senior group when discussing a particular literary work, it must be resolved peacefully and calmly.
- To instill a positive attitude towards the world around, to cultivate the habit of sharing with friends.
- To instill the skills of evaluating others and self-esteem in a particular activity.
- Accustom to polite communication.
- Cultivate respect for elders.
Conditions for the formation of personality
The concept of "socio-communicative formation" established the conditions that have a great influence on the development of a growing personality:
- family (personal characteristics of a person, such as character, habits, are formed by heredity, the action of elders in the family);
- environment (the formation of morals, the selection of interaction methods are also determined by the fact that the child watches the borders of the house);
- education (a combination of methods of influencing the personality of the family and the DOE).
Areas of work
Based on the goals and objectives, as well as on the conditions and circumstances of the formation of the individual, social and communicative development is directly related to the activity side of child development. For this reason, in practice, the development of the child is carried out through the following areas of GCD (social and communicative development in the older group):
- Game work. Game work is considered to be the main one for preschoolers, that is, the tasks and problems of educational activity are realized mainly through it.
- Labor dynamism. Self catering. At the younger preschool age, these varieties of work have a symbolic and symbolic look, in which case they use the imitation method when the children repeat the actions, movements of the older one. For example, the teacher takes a pencil, performs a line in the sheet of the document - the child repeats, then the adult draws 3 more lines in order for the rectangle to come out - the child repeats again.
In the middle and senior groups, there is a shift in values towards partnership, that is, not repetition of actions, but general execution (or addition). For example, a baby takes a watering can from a shelf, an adult pours some water, a child watered a flower.
Diagnostics of social and communicative development in the older group
Diagnostics is considered one of the forecast tools, a method of studying and establishing the effectiveness of work in a specific time period. The definition of the socio-communicative formation of senior preschoolers at the beginning of the school year (October) and at the end (April) is being carried out.
Monitoring is a continuous and directed observation of the progress of educational work in order to establish its dynamics and select ways and means of activity in order to extract the optimal outcome.
Stages of diagnosis of social and communicative development in the older group:
- Preparatory. Stages, diagnostic methods are formed, diagnostic cards for each baby are printed.
- Practical (proper diagnosis). The child’s knowledge, skills and abilities are studied for one to two weeks, using the game, conversation, monitoring of the child’s subject-role and director’s fun, labor activity, performance of regime factors, looking at and considering story illustrations. The received information is recorded in diagnostic cards.
- Analytical. Diagnostic results are discussed by a team of teachers together with a specialist in psychology, compared with previous information.
- Interpretation. The results are processed taking into account the conditions that could have an impact on their change (the baby was upset, in a bad mood, in anticipation of the disease, for this reason he was not able to show personal qualities).
- Defining goals and directions for follow-up activities. Diagnosis can be carried out in natural conditions for preschool children.
Particular attention is paid to this type of work of preschoolers, since directly in the process of the game it is possible to explain the problem in more detail, work out and fix its solution. In addition, games can be used in exercises (didactic), and when spending leisure time on the street or in a team (mobile). Finger fun, contributing to the formation of fine motor skills, can be done at any time.
Children are very quickly involved in the game, but often they leave it with difficulty, for this reason game methods are rarely used for training.
In the younger group, for the formation of intonational expressiveness, the game “Let's teach the hare to speak correctly” is used. Its essence is that a visitor comes to the lesson - a bunny who distorts phrases, for example, the names of animals (“ish” instead of “bear”, “from” instead of “cat”). The guys correct the bunny, correctly speaking phrases.
To teach them how to compare geometric objects, they use the game “Find an Object”: the guys become in a circle, the teacher throws the ball to the kid, shows an illustration with a geometric figure, the kid calls it and looks for a similar object.
The team often uses the game "Who says what", the purpose of which is to identify domestic and wild animals. Its essence lies in the fact that an adult, throwing a ball to one of the children standing in a circle, calls the animal. The kid gives the ball back and says how this beast "talks" (the predator growls, the dog barks, etc.).
In the younger group, the emphasis is on the formation of skill to jump correctly, performing actions under the sounding text. For example, the game “Run to me”: the guys are sitting on chairs, the teacher is at the other end of the room. To the phrase "Run everything to me!" the guys run to the teacher, who kindly greets them. To the phrase "Run to yourself!" the guys will return to the chair.
In the middle group, the goals of outdoor games are the formation of endurance in running, climbing, jumping. The game "Chanterelle in the chicken coop" can be played both indoors and outdoors. On the benches (“in the chicken coop”) there are guys (“hens”), on the back of the room there is a mink of a fox, the role of which is played by a kid or an adult. Hens walk around the courtyard, they are obliged to run away at the Fox signal, the fox at this time seeks to hold on to the gaping chicken and take it to its own hole. If she succeeded, the child leaves the game.
In the senior and preparatory groups, the goal of outdoor games is the formation of endurance and skill to smoothly carry out actions by the whole team. Here is an example of an outdoor game for older preschool age - the Quick Take game: cones, chestnuts or other small objects are scattered on the floor around the children, but one less than the number of players. According to the signal “Take it quickly!” the guys bend down and pick up the item. The one who did not have enough is defeated. Outdoor fun can be carried out both in a group and on the street.
Classes in social and communicative development in the senior group of preschool educational institutions include finger games. They contribute to the formation of fine motor skills, which is important in the younger and middle groups for the development of speech, and in the older and preparatory groups - to prepare the hand for writing. In addition, such games perfectly develop reaction, flexibility and memory:
- Junior group. "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, send your fingers for a walk! 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, they hid again in the house." (In turn, unbend all fingers without exception, starting with the little finger, then bend them in the same order).
- Middle group. "Like our cat’s legs are boots. Like our pig’s legs are boots. And the dog’s legs have blue slippers. And the little kid shoes are wearing boots. And little son Vovka has new sneakers. Like this, like that, new sneakers." (“Walk” with the index and middle fingers on the table).
- Senior group. "Boy finger, where have you been? - I went to the forest with this brother, I made soup with this brother, I ate porridge with this brother, and sang songs with this brother." (Alternately bend fingers).
- Preparatory group. “2 cats met:“ Meow-meow! ”, 2 puppy:“ Av-av! ”, 2 foals:“ Igo-go! ”, 2 cubs:“ Rrr! ”, 2 bulls:“ Muu! ”. Look, what horns. " (Demonstrate the horns, stretching out the index fingers and little fingers).
In order for the guys to quickly become active and join the work, it is necessary to choose the optimal incentive methods that are included in the planning of the GEF social and communicative development in the older group:
- Demonstration of illustrations is an indispensable feature of any training. Whatever topic is considered, pictures should be presented in sufficient quantities. Thus, when researching the problem of the “Specialty”, children should see illustrations from a person’s workplace.
- Poems, riddles. This technique can be applied both at the beginning of training and in the middle if the guys are a little distracted and need to be “returned” to the topic. As a rule, riddles and poems are included before the stage of fixing the used material.
- Games. In addition to finger, all games without exception can play the role of motivational tools.
- Verbal ways. They are especially productive if the teacher speaks or asks questions on behalf of a fantastic character.
Social and communicative development projects in the senior group include classes. Regardless of the age of the students, the training plan will be similar, and the time intervals for each of the groups differ, so in the younger group the lesson lasts 15 minutes, in the middle - 20, in the older - 25, and in the preparatory - 30.
The beginning or actualization of basic knowledge - 2-3 minutes, during which the teacher will consolidate the knowledge of children, referring to their past experience.
The main stage is 5-15 minutes. Preschoolers get acquainted with new material and work out acquired knowledge, skills and abilities in practice. It certainly contains a gym and / or finger games, breathing exercises. Didactic fun is an essential part of the main stage of the lesson.
Fastening of the used material - 5-10 minutes. As a rule, at this stage, the actual awareness of the acquired information takes place: pictures, applications, crafts. If time permits, games are included here.
The final stage is 1-2 minutes. The teacher thanks the children for the lesson, gives incentives (stickers, cut out figures, etc.), if this kind of assessment method is established in the concept of monitoring kindergarten.
The article examined in detail the main forms and methods of planning social and communicative development in the older group of preschoolers. Examples of possible games and activities were given. The directions of social and communicative development in the older group, middle and even younger, were also indicated.